Carlton Community History Group

ABN 89 670 391 357

The Carlton Community History Group (CCHG) was established by a committed group of people interested in the history of Carlton, an inner suburb of Melbourne, Australia. CCHG was incorporated in 2007 and launched at the Carlton Library in 2008.

We invite you to explore this website, find out more about us, read our newsletter, share your recollections and participate in our meetings and activities.


Special Event for History Week 2018

Join us for the launch of our new publication Carlton Voices. This book showcases a selection of the research work done by the Carlton Community History Group and its supporters over the last ten years.

Publication of the book was made possible through a grant from the City of Yarra, who are also sponsoring this event.

Date:Friday 12 October 2018
Time:6.30 to 7.30 pm
Location: Carlton Library
667 Rathdowne Street
North Carlton Vic 3054
This is a a free event. Book your place now via Eventbrite.


Next Meeting

Time and Location
Date:Tuesday 2 October 2018
Time:7.30 pm
Location: First Floor Meeting Room
Carlton Library
667 Rathdowne Street
North Carlton Vic 3054
This is a business meeting to finalise plans for the book launch in October. The full schedule of meetings is available on the meetings page.


What's in a Name?
Barry versus Barry

Sir Redmond Barry, the judge who famously sentenced Ned Kelly to death by hanging, had a long association with Carlton. He was the original crown land owner of two adjoining allotments in Rathdowne and Pelham Streets in 1853, and he lived in Carlton until the mid-1870s, when his substantial house was acquired and re-purposed as the new Hospital for Sick Children. Redmond Barry was appointed the first chancellor of Melbourne University in 1854, a position he held until his death in 1880. He was laid to rest in Melbourne General Cemetery, Carlton. The Victorian Heritage Database (B2376) attributes the naming of Barry Square in Carlton to Redmond Barry. However another, much younger, contender for the naming rights has emerged. The website Multifaceted Melbourne states that Barry Square was named after Daniel Joseph Barry, a Queensland soldier who was killed in action in World War 1 in October 1918, and that University Square was named as recently as 1998. Does this stand up to fact checking? 1,2,3,4

The crown grant, dated 13 June 1873, for the area bounded by Grattan, Leicester, Pelham and Barry Streets refers to "a public ground known as University Square". This name was in use as early as the 1860s, when it was common to name reserves according to their locality, hence "Barry Square" after Barry Street on the western boundary or "University Square" after the University of Melbourne on the northern boundary. Other examples in Carlton include Argyle Square and Macarthur Square, where the street names were used interchangeably with the names of the squares. This all took place decades before Daniel Joseph Barry was born in 1894 and more than a century before Barry Square was purportedly renamed University Square in 1998. So Daniel Joseph Barry's claim to naming rights does not fit within the established time frame. 5,6

Who was Daniel Joseph Barry? According to his service record (NAA: B2455, BARRY D J), he was born at California Creek, Herberton in Queensland in November 1894 and he was working as a clerk at the time of his enlistment. He enlisted at Townsville in October 1916 and was a private in the 7th Machine Gun Company and later the 2nd Machine Gun Battalion. Private Daniel Joseph Barry was killed in action in France on 3 October 1918, a young life cut short a month before his 24th birthday. In the months following his death, his family sought information about his final resting place. Months stretched into years and in May 1923 the Officer in Charge of base records wrote advising, with regret, that Grave Services had not succeeded in locating Private Barry's remains. The only consolation to the family was that Barry's name, regimental description and date of death would appear on a collective memorial to the fallen, to be "erected in certain defined battle areas of France or Belgium". There is no evidence in Private Barry's service record that his name was memorialised in Barry Square, Carlton, or that he had any known connection with the reserve in Carlton. 7

What would Judge Redmond Barry have made of this evidence? He certainly had a prior claim to the naming rights of Barry Street and Barry Square, in terms of both timeline and his connection with Melbourne University. Unlike the present day naming conventions, it was common to have streets and other landmarks named after prominent citizens during their lifetime. Redmond Barry's claim is backed up by evidence from authoritative sources, such as the Victorian Heritage Database, Melbourne City Council and Melbourne University. By contrast, Daniel Barry's claim consists of an unsupported statement on a web page that is now closed for comments. The verdict comes down in favour of Redmond Barry, but CCHG would be interested to hear of any information in support of Private Barry's claim.8,9

Contact us if you can shed any light on this mystery.

Notes and References:
1 Australian Dictionary of Biography
2 The Argus, 28 September 1876, p. 7
3 Victorian Heritage Database (B2376)
4 Multifaceted Melbourne
5 Certificate of Title, Vol. 600, Fol. 912 (13 June 1873)
6 Argyle Square and Macarthur Square were permanently reserved on 13 June 1873, the same date as University Square.
7 NAA: B2455, BARRY D J (National Archives of Australia)
8 University Square Timeline
9 Melbourne University Key 13: Grounds and Buildings


A Host of Golden Daffodils

I wandered lonely as a cloud, that floats on high o'er vales and hills
When all at once I saw a crowd, a host of golden daffodils

William Wordsworth, 1770-1850


Image: CCHG
Daffodils in Murchison Square Carlton

The flowers that once inspired Wordsworth's poetry are now blooming in Macarthur and Murchison Squares in Carlton. The bulbs were planted by Melbourne City Council in autumn 2018, following a successful trial planting in the Fitzroy Gardens, East Melbourne, in 2016. The daffodils are expected to provide a colourful winter display for the next five years.

The squares of Carlton - Argyle, Curtain, Lincoln, Macarthur, Murchison and University - are the topic of our latest newsletter.


Goodbye Bridget

Bridget Kinsman (née Ballot), beauty therapist of Newry Street, North Carlton, lost her fight with cancer and died on 16 May 2018. She will be remembered as a gentle and caring soul, and will be sadly missed by her family, friends and clients. Bridget opened her salon Carlton Beauty Care in 1995, in a quaint two storey building on the corner of Newry and Henry Streets. Newry Street was not a prime location for a business, compared to the main shopping area of Rathdowne Street nearby, but it worked for Bridget. Word got around and her client base grew. She never had to advertise her services because the recommendation of a satisfied client was worth more than a thousand dollars of advertising. While other businesses came and went, Bridget's was one of the longest running to continuously occupy the building.

Bridget Kinsman (13 August 1968 - 16 May 2018) was farewelled at St Peter's Eastern Hill on 24 May 2018. CCHG extends its condolences to her husband Jeff and their two sons.

Note:
The shop at 119 Newry Street was built in 1881 by W. Hearndon. It has had a variety of uses over the years, including a fancy repository, tinsmith and bootmaker and repairer.


Flying the Red Flag

The furore caused by flying the red flag at Trades Hall in Carlton had a resolution of sorts in September 1918, when new regulations under the War Precautions Act were introduced. The far-reaching regulations prohibited "the exhibition or use, without the permission of the Minister in writing, of any red flag on any building, or on any land used in connection there-with, or on any ship or other vessel, or in any public place, or in connection with any procession or demonstration." The only exemption allowed was the official use of the red flag for signalling or to denote danger.

RED FLAG PROHIBITION.
New War Regulation

The flying of the red flag, or any flag, may be prohibited under a War Precautions Regulation issued yesterday. The regulation provides that the Minister for Defence may, by notice the "Commonwealth Gazette," either absolutely or subject to such conditions and restrictions as are from time to time specified by him in writing prohibit the exhibition or use of any flag on any building, any land in connection with a building, vessel, or public place, or in connection with any procession or demonstration. The exhibition or use of a flag in contravention of any condition or restriction specified by the Minister shall be deemed to be in contravention of the regulation. Any person who exhibits, uses, authorises, or permits the exhibition or use of any such flag, in contravention of the regulation shall be guilty of an offence. Where any building or land on which a flag is exhibited or used in contravention of the regulations is owned, managed, or controlled by any association, society, or committee of management, the trustees, executive council, president, secretary, and other officers of the association, society, or committee shall be severally guilty of an offence.

Permit for Special Days Desired

The Trades Hall Council at a "special call" meeting last night considered the question of flying the red flag on the Trades Hall. A resolution providing for the flying of the flag every day was rescinded, and a substitute motion approving of flying the flag on special labour anniversaries agreed to. The decision of the council will be conveyed to the Acting Prime Minister (Mr. Watt), and a desire expressed to fly the flag on occasions to be specified.

The Argus, 13 September 1918, p. 6

RED FLAG.
Absolute Prohibition.

Following the recent issue of a regulation under the War Precautions Act, a proclamation was issued on Saturday over the signature of the Minister for Defence (Senator Pearce) prohibiting the display of the red flag. The notice applies the prohibition to "the exhibition or use, without the permission of the Minister in writing, of any red flag on any building, or on any land used in connection there-with, or on any ship or other vessell, or in any public place, or in connection with any procession or demonstration." The only exemption is in the case of the official use of the red flag for signalling or to denote danger.

The Argus, 23 September 1918, p. 6

For more newspaper reports, go to Carlton in the News


A Plague on Your Houses

The new century had only just begun when Australia faced a major health scare in January 1900. Bubonic plague, a disease more commonly associated with medieval Europe, appeared for the first time in Australia. The first case was recorded in Sydney on 19 January 1900 and was linked to Central Wharf, where rat-infested ships arrived from the known plague areas of India, Asia and Noumea. It was only a matter of time that the disease would reach Victoria but, with forewarning, public health officials were better equipped to contain the epidemic. The first Victorian case was reported at Collingwood on 8 May 1900, followed by outbreaks at Port Melbourne, HMS Cerberus, Geelong, Kensington (a family of five) and Camberwell. There was a rumoured outbreak in Carlton, which proved to be false, and the Leader newspaper took a humorous approach in reporting on a serious subject:

Nearly every suburb has had at least half-a-dozen plague scares during the last ten days. The process of originating a scare is the easiest thing in the world. It is only necessary for Mrs. Jones to mention to Mrs. Brown over the back gate that her "old man" has not been feeling well, and has a casual swelling, and in about two hours another plague case will have developed, and local rents will have taken a downward tendency. Carlton offers a case in point. Last Sunday afternoon half the suburb knew that the plague had broken out in a certain house in a certain street. Before 4 o'clock about a third of the population of Carlton had drifted past the house at a respectful distance, and the occupants noted the interest displayed in their home with growing wonder; two families had packed up hastily with the intention of shifting at daylight on Monday morning, and the neighbors were all coldly distant. Then came two officials in a cab. "It is reported that the plague has broken out in your house," said one to the woman who opened the door. The woman screamed at the idea, and a hunt failed to disclose the sign of sickness anywhere, and nobody could tell how or why the report had grown, but as the men were leaving again the housewife ran to the cab, "I know how it is," she said. "This morning I told Mrs. —, at No. 5, that my husband had been plagued with a sick horse all night."

Source: Leader, 19 May 1900, p. 22.

The Victorian epidemic was contained within a month, with only 2 fatalities. For the entire year of 1900, there were 10 recorded cases of bubonic plague in Victoria, compared to 303 cases in New South Wales and 136 in Queensland. South Australia and Western Australia recorded 3 and 6 cases respectively and Tasmania, geographically protected by its isolation from the mainland, remained plague free.1

1 The history of plague in Australia 1900-1926. Service publication no. 23. Commonwealth of Australia. Department of Health, 1926


Legless in Carlton

As a sanitation worker, William Hodges was accustomed to finding all sorts of foreign objects in the drains of the city. He was employed as a ganger by the Melbourne & Metropolitan Board of Works and, on the morning of Thursday 3 May 1900, his job was to flush the drains in Rodney Place, Carlton. This was a short right-of-way between Drummond and Lygon Streets, with an opening off the south side of Pelham Street. When Hodges approached the drain cover, he was shocked to see what appeared to be the bones of a human leg and foot lying across the grating. The bones were devoid of flesh and dark in colour, as if exposed to the air for some time. A week or two earlier, a neatly-severed human hand had been found in Francis Street in the city. Were these the body parts of a murder victim?

To find out more about this gruesome discovery, go to Crime in Carlton


La Mama up in Flames


Image: CCHG
The Aftermath of the Fire

Carlton residents woke to the shocking news that La Mama Theatre in Faraday Street was gutted by fire in the early hours of Saturday 19 May 2018.

The innovative theatre was founded by Betty Burstall in 1967, in the style of La Mama in New York. The small two-storey building, once owned by the Del Monaco family, was a printing workshop, and an underwear and shirt factory before its transformation into an intimate theatre space. Betty Burstall, the "Mama" of La Mama, died in 2013.

In the theatre tradition of "the show must go on", Saturday night's performance of Bully Virus went ahead at the alternative venue of the Kathleen Syme Library & Community Centre, on the corner of Faraday and Cardigan Streets.

Related item: Betty Burstall 1926-2013


Fish is Back on the Menu

A new seafood business, The Fishmonger's Son, has opened at the former Canals shop in Nicholson Street, North Carlton in May 2018. The two-storey building at 703 Nicholson Street was auctioned in October 2017, following the retirement of John and Peter Canals. The Canals family business began as a fish and chip shop, operated by Spanish migrants Joseph and Maria Canals, in Collingwood in 1917. They moved to North Carlton in the early 1930s and took over an existing fishmonger's shop, which had been in Nicholson Street as early as 1905. Canals was a family business in the true sense, with successive generations learning the trade from their elders and making their own contribution to developing the business. Over the decades, migrants from Europe, like the Canals family, have done much to influence the Australian taste for fish and seafood. In 2017, the demand for quality seafood was greater than ever and the Canals brothers, John and Peter, chose to end on a high note and give themselves a well-earned break in retirement.

Notes and References:
Building occupancy information has been sourced from Sands and McDougall directories.
The Age, 28 September 2017


People of the Risen King
A History of St. Jude's Carlton, 1866-2016
By Elizabeth Willis


Image: Courtesy of St. Jude's Church

Book Review

Every time I regularly drive past St. Jude's church in Lygon Street, Carlton, I am amazed and impressed by the beauty of the building, not solid bluestone, which one might expect, but multi-coloured bricks, glowing in the light.

I will start by extensively quoting the foreword to this book written by the Reverend Dr. Chris Mulherin, recently the locum vicar. "The year 2016 was a transition year of humble achievements at St. Jude's: we lost a vicar, we have appointed another, we endured twelve months under a locum vicar, we all learned the meaning of 'sesquicentenary', and along the way we have given thanks to God for the 150 years that this church, in the heart of vibrant Carlton, has testified to the Christian faith. … It has been my privilege to occupy the vicar's (tattered, hydraulically dysfunctional) chair in this 150th year of the church's life. But despite the instability of the last year, like the Apostle Paul we do not lose heart because we know that we are people of the risen King. And it is auspicious that in its 150th year Elizabeth Willis has completed this fine history of St. Jude's."

If you read the book not only will you learn the history of St. Jude's but you will gain an insight into 'inner-northern Melbourne, our city and the world' (to quote the current St. Jude's vision statement). You will learn of the changing life and times of Carlton - its unsewered streets, the bulldozing of crowded slums, the waves of immigration, the housing estates and the Lygon Street traders - and also times of depressions and times of plenty, including the effect on the city of the world's richest gold rush. You will read of a changing Australia over generations; of the place of religion in Melbourne's life, of world wars and of denominational wars over conscription. And, of course, you will read of religion and Australian Anglicanism, of missions and evangelism, of different preaching styles, of different ministry philosophies, and of clerical attitudes and theological dispositions.

But you will also hear of the other work of an inner-city church named after the patron saint of lost causes and desperate cases. You will expect to read of a Sunday school and perhaps at the Children's Hospital and individuals who taught there, but you will be surprised at the range of other activities. The care for international students, the fluctuating attendances, shop owners shuttering their windows for the funeral procession of the first vicar, of open air services with Greek, French and Italian translation, and of people who were homeless and slept in the crypt, of soup and bread kitchens, a debt centre, mission work for the Chinese of Bourke Street, police breaking up a riot at a church meeting and the extraordinary gathering together of people who not only lived in the area, but from over one hundred different post codes.

Even as a committed atheist I have no hesitation in recommending this book, it offers so many insights into the life and times of the suburb I value so highly and it also taught me much about the church itself and the admirable work it did, and continues to do.

Dr. Judith Biddington
CCHG

People of the Risen King is available for purchase at Readings in Lygon Street, Carlton


Little but Fierce


Photo: CCHG
Shakespeare Street Mural
North Carlton

Have you see the new mural facing the mini park in Shakespeare Street, North Carlton? The text "Little but Fierce" is taken from William Shakespeare's play A Midsummer Night's Dream and was suggested by a local resident. The full wording is: "And though she be but little, she is fierce". That Shakespeare Street is "little" there is no doubt. The street is narrow and runs for one block only, between Drummond and Lygon Streets. For the "fierce" side of Shakespeare Street, we need to look back in history.

Shakespeare Street was the scene of at least two shooting incidents, one fatal, in 1922 and 1944. The street was identified as a "slum pocket" by the Housing Investigation and Slum Abolition Board in 1936-37. The people of Shakespeare Street had a battle on their hands in the 1950s and 1960s, when the Housing Commission of Victoria condemned five cottages on the south side (nos. 7 to 15 inclusive) as unfit for human habitation. The cottages were demolished in January 1970, leaving a vacant space ready for development. Without doubt, the fiercest battle fought in Shakespeare Street was in the 1970s, against the inappropriate building of a block of cluster flats on the south side of the street. Residents and other concerned citizens took action, at their own expense, by cleaning up the vacant site and creating a mini park for the benefit and enjoyment of the community. They bravely put their money where their mouth was, so to speak, and entered into an agreement with the City of Melbourne to buy the land. Decades later, the mini park and its new mural remain a tribute to the power of community action.

More information on Shakespeare Street
Related items:
Shooting in Shakespeare Street
The Penny Dreadful


The Good Doctor
Serge Liberman
1942 - 2017

Dr Serge Liberman, medical general practitioner to a generation of people in Carlton, Brunswick and other inner suburbs, died on 22 December 2017. Here are thoughts and recollections from some of those for whom he was a treasured doctor, friend and writer.

Judith Biddington:
There are many skilled doctors and writers in our community, but most don't have necessarily have skill in both areas. Serge Liberman did, he was a good doctor and a good and interesting writer. In addition, as a humanist and humanitarian, he had great people skills. No wonder people in Carlton followed him up to Brunswick when he moved from one suburb to the other, or flocked to his talks when he gave them. Serge had the capacity to involve you, as his patient, in what was happening to you, to explain, to answer all your questions honestly and sensibly, thereby treating you with respect. He always knew your history, even long term, over forty years for some members of our family. He was also very likeable and so many of his patients regarded him as a friend; even when they did not share his ethnicity they still enjoyed his writing and excellent scholarship. He would also have made an exceptional teacher. He will be sorely missed.

Anne Marie Lynzaat & Richard Trembath:
There are many stories I could tell about Serge Liberman who was our GP for decades. The one I shall tell comes from when he had retired, and it illustrates his compassion and empathy with his patients. About a year after he left the Lotus Medical Centre he read the death notice I had placed in the newspaper regarding my brother in law's death from pancreatic cancer. Anne Marie and I were both surprised and moved by the letter we received from Serge shortly afterwards. In it he expressed his best wishes and sympathy for our loss. He concluded with a typical dry joke that Anne Marie's unusual surname helped pick out the notice from all the others!

Shelley Marcus & Peter Tilley:
As patients of Serge Liberman in Carlton and Brunswick from the 1990's until his retirement in around 2013, my wife Shelley and I came greatly to appreciate his excellence and warmth as a GP but also his scholarly and literary interests. He was a late-20th-century version of Anton Pavlovich Chekhov, who was likewise a doctor and master of the short story. As a Russian-speaker and translator myself, I enjoyed our conversations on cultural matters during consultations. Serge received the Alan Marshall Literary Award in 1980 and 1981, and Shelley and I have an autographed copy of his 2011, 836-page magnum opus, 'The Bibliography of Australasian Judaica 1788-2008'. Serge will be much missed.

Felice Rocca:
It is a rare privilege to have the wise counsel and empathy of the same doctor from the gawky edge of early adulthood until the wistful edge of retirement. I first went to the Lygon St clinic in the early 1970s with a throat complaint and soon found myself settling to see Serge whenever possible, following to new offices in Brunswick by the mid 1990s. The strictly physical complaints, increasing as I aged, he dealt with smoothly and competently, and I soon found I could also trust him to advise on matters of emotional health, with the same warm efficiency. I also discovered in his writings how deep his understanding of others could go, such as in his short story, published in The Age, of an elderly Italian widower readying to leave for Australia. Upon his retirement in 2013 I felt a door was closing on a large part of my life. Now I know it is shut for good. Addio Serge.

Susan Crowe:
Serge Liberman was a popular doctor and you sometimes had to wait a while to see him, but he always gave you his full attention and care. One day I was sitting in the waiting room, suffering from what I thought was the world's worst cold, when I heard a terrible hacking cough coming from the consulting room. My symptoms were trivial by comparison with this patient, who sounded like they were at death's door. Imagine my surprise when I discovered that the "patient" was, in fact, Dr Liberman himself. He was obviously unwell, but he was still seeing a few patients before going home to rest. He wrote a certificate for my time off work and, with his characteristic humour, he pushed a blank form towards me and asked if I could write a certificate for him. I gave him the rest of the week off.

More information:

An obituary, with an overview of his life and work, appears in the Sydney Morning Herald.

As well as his medical work, Serge Liberman was a chronicler of Jewish, and also of other migrant lives, in Carlton and other parts of Melbourne, which came alive in his writings. Much of his writing output can be found at his website.

In December 2014 Serge Liberman gave a talk to the Carlton Community History Group entitled "Writing Jewish Carlton". A copy of the talk can be found on the Academia website.


And So To Bed

The boutique Milly Sleeping closed in February 2018, after more than 12 years in Carlton. The business at 157 Elgin Street, a small two storey shop with a narrow staircase, began in 2005. Mother and daughter team of Janette and Leah Muddle have supported local designers and stocked an eclectic range of clothing and accessories. "Milly Sleeping" was not, as might be expected, named after the two resident cats, which were sometimes seen sleeping in the front window. It was named after a painting by Ernst Kirchner.

Nearly 100 years ago, in September 1919, a very different style of business was transacted at 157 Elgin Street. Joseph Nolan, a hairdresser, appeared in Carlton Court on a charge of having used his premises for gaming purposes between 10 July and 1 September 1919. His was one of several local businesses raided by police and a search yielded the incriminating evidence of betting tickets and marked money. Nolan pleaded guilty and was fined £40, with £3 costs.

References:
http://www.millysleeping.com
The Argus, 6 September 1919, p. 17


Dracula's Last Bite

Carlton's well known theatre restaurant, Dracula's, has closed. The theatre restaurant began in Drewery Lane, Melbourne, in 1980 and moved to larger premises at 96-100 Victoria Street, Carlton, ten years later in 1990. The converted brick factory site, on the corner of Cardigan Street, was originally designed by architect P. Hudson in 1912 and built by F. Frenchman for Ross, Robbins Co., brassfounders. Dracula's final performance was on Saturday 23 December 2017.

Notes and References:
Building occupancy information has been sourced from Sands and McDougall directories.
Building design information has been sourced from the Australian Architectural Index and Building Application Index.
Dracula's Melbourne


Scaling the Heights at St Michael's Church
McIlwraith Street Princes Hill


Photo: CCHG

Prayer might bring you closer to God, but sometimes a little extra help is needed. This crane was deployed to enable safe access to the roof of St Michael's Anglican Church for maintenance work to be carried out. The situation would have been very different in 1885, when the church was built. Before the advent of safe work practices in the construction industry, workers would have been climbing up rickety wooden scaffolding and hauling loads of bricks by hand. The foundation stone for the church was laid by Sir George Verdon on 18 February 1885 and the opening service was held on Sunday 24 May in the same year. The brick church, designed by architect James Gall (Gaul) and built by Robertson and Stewart, was described in the North Melbourne Advertiser as:

" … a commodious brick building 70 x 40 in the inside, walls 18ft. high with a Gothic roof running to about 45ft. high, the windows and doors have cement facings, the roof is lined with tongue and groved deal and varnished, while splendid ventilation is provided by a large lowered ventilator on the top 30 feet long, a dado of cement is now round the walls inside about 4 feet high and the remainder of the walls plastered, the windows are filled with cathedral glass, with tinted borders which gives the place a bright and cheerful appearance, sufficient ingress and egress is provided in five doors which all open outwards. The lighting of the church is excellent and a nice even light is distributed by two sunlights of four feet diameter, together with four standards round the chancel. Sitting accomodation is provided for 500 and the greater part of the available sittings have been taken up prior to the opening of the church."

"A commodious vestry is provided at the east end of the church, suitable for holding meetings in connection with parochial work. The cost of the building with the fittings and furniture will amount to nearly £2000, but this sum the committee expect by united efforts to clear off in a very short period, and from the known popularity as well as the energy of the new incumbent it is expected that the present building will very soon have to be devoted to the objects which the promoters had in view, viz., a Sunday School, and a large and commodious church built to meet the wants of this rising locality."

Prior to 1885, there was no Anglican church in North Carlton and Princes Hill to serve the pastoral needs of the growing population. The nearest churches were St Jude's in Lygon Street, Carlton, and St Luke's in St George's Road, North Fitzroy. In 1885, Bishop Moorhouse sanctioned the separation of North Carlton to form a separate parish and St Michael's was born. A suitable site was found on the corner of Tucker (now McIlwraith) and Macpherson Streets and the land was procured by James Moorhouse, William Edward Hearn and Thomas Turner a'Beckett on behalf of the Anglican Church. The new parish and the building of the church had the full support of the community. Architect James Gall drew up the plans free of charge and the project was funded by donations and interest-free loans. Parishioners provided material support with donations of carpeting, chairs and other furniture, a church bell, collecting plates and communion cloths.

References:
North Melbourne Advertiser, 20 February 1885, p. 3
North Melbourne Advertiser, 29 May 1885, p. 3
Certificate of Title, Vol. 1654, Folio 686, 1885
The St. Michael's Story : 125 years of Anglican Ministry in North Carlton. St. Michael's Anglican Church, 2010



Photo: CCHG
Elm Trees in Curtain Square North Carlton
Looking South Towards Newry Street


Photo: CCHG
Tree Removal in Curtain Square North Carlton
September 2017

From Quarry to Quercus
Curtain Square North Carlton

Curtain Square in North Carlton has had a major landscape change, with the removal of twelve elm trees from its north/south avenue. Six of the mature elm trees, estimated at 100 years old, were assessed as having structural defects and they posed a serious risk to public safety. The remaining elm trees, from more recent plantings, were not growing well in their current position and their removal allowed for a new avenue of 16 trees to be planted. The Scarlet Oak, Quercus coccinea, was selected as the replacement species. Tree removal took place in September 2017 and care was taken to minimise disruption to the resident wildlife population.

Of course, it will take some time for the new avenue of trees to become established, but Curtain Square has gone through many changes in its history. Curtain Square occupies 1.46 hectares of the area bounded by Rathdowne, Canning, Curtain and Newry Streets and the land was first reserved for recreational purposes in May 1876. However, it had an earlier history as a quarry worked by convicts from the Collingwood Stockade from 1853 to 1866. The convicts spent their days doing back breaking work in the quarry, hewing blocks of bluestone with hand tools, then they were marched back to the stockade (now the site of North Carlton Primary School in Lee Street) to be locked up overnight.

The contrast between the work of the convicts and the amenity of Curtain Square as a public recreational space could not be greater. A report in The Argus of April 1877 spoke in glowing terms of the area being "hardly recognisable as the place it was 12 months ago". The old quarry holes were filled in and the area was planted with a variety of trees and shrubs in pleasing arrangements. It was noted "the great hollows which formerly existed have been filled up with street sweepings, and are now being covered with a thick layer of mould." The legacy of this infill material was noted a hundred and fifteen years later in the Curtain Square Masterplan of 1992. Cracks in the walls of buildings, constructed in the 1930s and 1940s, were attributed to subsidence on the former quarry site, as was the tilt of the elm trees in the vicinity. The buildings, a "men's shelter" and a toilet block, were demolished in the 1990s.

The reserve, also known as Curtain's Square, was named in honour of John Curtain, who was instrumental in having the land reserved for ornamental and recreational purposes. He was a Melbourne City Councillor and Member of Parliament, the publican of several hotels in Carlton and a well known real estate developer, who at one stage owned over fifty properties in Carlton. Curtain Street, on the northern boundary of the square, is also named after him.

References:
Curtain Square tree replacements, City of Yarra, 2017
Crown Title, Vol. 887, Folio 273, 5 May 1876
The Argus, 6 April 1877, p. 5. This article includes a detailed list of trees planted in the reserve.
Curtain Square Masterplan, Urban Design Team, City of Melbourne, April 1992, p. 6

Related Items:
The Poplars of Canning Street
John Curtain


The Munster Arms

Princes Street is the dividing line between Carlton and North Carlton, and a major thoroughfare for east-west traffic. When the lights turn red at the Canning Street intersection, few travellers could fail to notice the distinctive Edwardian building on the south west corner. The Dan O'Connell Hotel is a Carlton institution and perhaps best known for its St Patrick's Day celebrations. The present hotel building is over 100 years old and was designed by Smith & Ogg and built by C.F. Pittard in 1912. It was named after Irish political leader Daniel O'Connell (17751847), but the Irish connection goes back even further, to a earlier hotel on the same site.1

The Munster Arms Hotel, named after the province of Munster in the south of Ireland, was first licensed to Margaret McCrohan in 1875. Her application of 8 June was initially opposed, and the close proximity of two other hotels - the Pioneer hotel and United States Hotel - may have been a contributory factor. The application was postponed for 14 days and the licence was granted on 22 June 1875. The original building was described as a small brick hotel, with nine rooms, a bar and a cellar. Mrs McCrohan and her husband Eugene ran the hotel until 1881, when the licence was transferred to George Henry (Harry) Wallace.2,3,4

Wallace held the licence for about a year only, and ran into trouble when removing an unruly patron from his hotel in October 1881. He took legal action against Daniel Dorian (Dorien) for assault, but this case was dismissed by the City Bench. A few months later on 27 February 1882, Dorian, a bricklayer, sought the sum of £300, as damages for an assault and battery, and malicious prosecution. The civil case was heard in the Supreme Court before a judge and jury. The presentation of evidence from both parties took the greater part of the day and the judge commented that the case could have been dealt with in a lower court. After a short deliberation by the jury, Dorian, the plaintiff, was awarded £5, considerably less then the desired amount.5

By the end of the month, George Henry Wallace had transferred his licence to Annie McCanny. Mrs McCanny, former licensee of the Kensington Hotel, did not have the capital to finance her new hotel business and she entered into an arrangement, to the value of £396, with the Melbourne Brewing and Malting Company Limited. Such financial arrangements were common in the nineteenth century and enabled persons of limited financial means to go into business. The brewing company acted as a de facto bank and the hotel was "tied" to the company and required to sell its beer. The bill of sale between Annie McCanny and the Melbourne Brewing and Malting Company Limited, dated 30 March 1882, includes a detailed room-by-room inventory of the hotel contents, and this gives a fascinating snapshot of the hotel in the 1880s.6

On 24 September 1882, Annie McCanny, her niece Mary Ann Cunningham and her friend Elizabeth Vernor had a frightening experience, when four drunken men forced their way into the hotel after closing time. The men went on a rampage, chasing young Mary Ann, throwing a decanter at Elizabeth, breaking a window, smashing glasses and damaging fittings. When Thomas Henderson (alias Pangburn), James Gawthorn, Thomas Whelan and John Robinson appeared in the City Court to answer the charges, they pleaded drunkenness as an excuse, and offered to make good the damage. The magistrate, Mr Panton, took a hard line and denied drunkenness as an excuse for ruffian behaviour, and he fined the men accordingly.7

Annie McCanny died intestate on 17 June 1883, aged 33 years, and she left two young sons, James and Henry. Their father, Thomas McCanny, could not be located and there was an outstanding protection order against him for domestic violence. (Ironically, the protection order enabled Annie to obtain the hotel licence because, at the time, there were restrictions on granting licences to married women.) The Melbourne Brewing and Malting Company Limited took possession of the hotel, as was their right, and the "two intelligent looking" boys appeared in the City Court charged with being neglected children. The magistrate, Mr Panton, was sympathetic to their plight, but Annie's estate, valued at £405, 8 shillings and 6 pence, was tied to the Melbourne Brewing and Malting Company Limited and there was no financial provision for her children. The boys were sent to St Augustine's orphanage in Geelong, and the Victoria Police Gazette later reported that the younger brother, Henry, had absconded in 1891.8,9,10

It could be said that the Munster Arms Hotel died with Annie McCanny. Once the administrative arrangements of Annie's estate were sorted out, the hotel was taken over in August 1883 by Mary Buggy, who paid £100 for the licence. It was during her time as licensee that the Munster Arms became the Dan O'Connell, with the new name first appearing in the Licensing Register in December 1883. The Dan O'Connell continues to trade in the 21st century and remains the only surviving licensed hotel south of Princes Street, between Nicholson Street and Rathdowne Street. This area of Carlton was once populated with a number of hotels, all of which have been delicensed, though some former hotel buildings still remain. The Dan O'Connell's immediate neighbours, the Pioneer Hotel and the United States Hotel, were delicensed in 1907 and 1925 respectively.11

Notes and References:
1 Building information has been sourced from the Australian Architectural Index and Melbourne City Council Rate Books
2 Hotel licensing information has been sourced from the Licensing Register (VPRS 7601) and Index to Defunct Hotel Licences (VPRS 8159)
3 The United States Hotel was on the corner of Canning and Neill Streets, Carlton. It is now the Princes Hill Gallery.
4 The Pioneer Hotel was on the corner of Station and Neill Streets, Carlton. The building no longer exists.
5 The Argus, 2 March 1882, p. 5
6 Conditional Bill of Sale 60205, Mrs McCanny to the Melbourne Brewing and Malting Company Limited, 30th March 1882 (VPRS 8350)
7 The Argus, 30 September 1882, p. 12
8 Probate File of Annie McCanny, 25-885 (VPRS 28)
9 The Argus, 7 August 1883, p. 10
10 Victoria Police Gazette, 23 September 1891, p. 270
11 The Argus, 15 August 1883, p. 11.

For more stories of Carlton pubs, read our August 2017 newsletter.


Vale Bea
1924-2017

It is with great sadness that CCHG notes the death at 93 years old of "Bea". Her recollections of her Carlton childhood were recorded in 2010 and provide a vivid insight into the kind of lives lived by poorer residents in what was then a vibrant working class suburb, as well as describing the effects of the outbreak of World War 2 on a young woman just finding her feet in the world of employment.

Bea married soon after the war and over the decades raised a family of four and gradually acquired the professional qualifications and experience she had missed out on when she left school at 14. Additionally, at the age of 64, she undertook an Arts degree majoring in Art History and Italian. She described those years at university as the highlight of her life. It was characteristic of her energy that, when she was interviewed at the age of 86, she was still employing an Italian tutor to work with her and a small group of friends in maintaining their language skills.

Bea spent the last couple of years of her life in an aged care home, something her daughters suggested to her with some trepidation as a temporary respite but which, characteristically, she enjoyed so much that she immediately elected to make it permanent.

Vale Bea, a full life indeed.

Who would have thought that waiting for her friend to change her stocking could have made such a difference? Read Bea's story and find out how this seemingly trivial event had a big impact on her young life.


A Girl in Trouble

In her recent book For a girl : a true story of secrets, motherhood and hope, writer Mary-Rose MacColl gives an account of the time she spent at a home for unmarried pregnant girls in Carlton in the 1970s. Mary-Rose became pregnant at 18 and she travelled interstate, from her home city of Brisbane, to have her baby and give it up for adoption. While community attitudes towards single mothers were changing at the time, there was still a social stigma attached to being "a girl in trouble". In the case of Mary-Rose, she had left home and lied about the married man who had made her pregnant, in order to protect his identity and reputation. She kept her secret for years and it was only after the birth of her second child, a son, that the long-suppressed memories surfaced and she was able to embark on her painful journey of reconciliation and recovery.1

Mary-Rose's home during her pregnancy was the St Joseph's Receiving Home at 101 Grattan Street, conveniently near the Royal Women's Hospital, and run by the Sisters of St Joseph. The Receiving Home was first established in Barkly Street, Carlton, in 1902 by Margaret Goldspink, a well known charity and welfare worker. Within a few years, the home moved to the larger premises in Grattan Street, an opulent two-storey house designed by W.S. Law and built for Louisa Langley in 1890. Mrs Langley, who also owned the adjacent aerated waters factory, was declared insolvent in 1905, forcing the sale of the house and factory site to pay her creditors. The Catholic Church purchased the property, measuring 56 feet by 132 feet, for £2,000 in late 1905 and Archbishop Carr invited the Sisters of St Joseph to take over management of the Receiving Home in 1906. During World War 1 the building was extended, at a cost of £4,000 (twice the original purchase price), with a new wing and chapel that was officially opened by Coadjuter-Archbishop Daniel Mannix in February 1915. The land on the eastern side, towards Lygon Street, was later acquired and the houses of Grattan Terrace (nos. 81 to 99) were demolished in 1960 to make way for a new accommodation wing. 2,3,4,5,6,7,8

For nearly 80 years, St Joseph's Receiving Home offered shelter to thousands of pregnant women and also provided short term residential care to children considered by the courts to be neglected or "at risk". The supporting mother's benefit was introduced by the Whitlam Government in 1973, when it was acknowledged that single mothers needed support, not condemnation, to keep their babies. Rates of adoption, which was once seen as a convenient solution to a social problem, have dropped off dramatically since the 1970s, while the birth rate of ex-nuptual babies has risen steadily during the same period. These babies are now more likely to be born and raised in the community than in institutions. The Receiving Home closed in 1985, when it was merged with St Joseph's Babies Home to form the new St Joseph's Babies' & Family Service in Glenroy. The 1960s accommodation wing was demolished in the 1990s and redeveloped as a retail and residential complex. The Royal Women's Hospital, where many of the Receiving Home residents had their babies, relocated to new premises in Flemington Road, Parkville, in 2008. 9,10,11,12


Architect's drawing of St Joseph's Receiving Home
Image Source: The Advocate, 27 February 1915, p. 27
Architect A.A. Fritsch's drawing of St Joseph's Receiving Home extension, officially opened in February 1915.
The original 1890 building facade was replicated in the new wing, and a chapel was added on the western boundary.
The houses of the former Receiving Home are now numbered 103 and 105 Grattan Street, Carlton.

References:
1 The Age Good Weekend, 22 April 2017, p. 22-24
2 Mackillop Family Services
3 Land ownership and occupancy information sourced from land title records and Melbourne City Council rate books
4 Australian Architectural Index
5 The Age, 13 May 1905, p. 12
6 The Advocate, 6 January 1906, p. 16
7 The Advocate, 27 February 1915, p. 27
8 Register of Demolitions, 1945-1975 (VPRS 17292)
9 Find & Connect : History & information about Australian orphanages, children's homes & other institutions
10 Births Australia (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 3301.0)
11 Australian Social Trends (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 4102.0)
12 Building Application Index (VPRS 11202)


A Fruitful Business

Good news for Rathdowne Street shoppers - the former St Clements greengrocer, which closed in February 2017, has re-opened under new management in May 2017. Senserrick, currently at 687 Nicholson Street North Carlton, is expanding its business into Rathdowne Street. Senserrick and St Clements are the latest in a long line of greengrocers that have occupied the shop at 384 Rathdowne Street since the 1930s, with the exception of a few years from the late 1940s when it was a wholesale hardware business. Longer term residents will remember the Tucci family, who operated the greengrocer's business from the mid 1950s through to the 1990s. The purchase of fruit and vegetables was often accompanied by an impromptu Italian lesson, courtesy of Francesca and Paolo. They retained ownership of the building after their retirement and the business has been continued by a succession of greengrocers. Paolo died in April 1993 and Francesca in June 2016, at the age of 90 years. Both were buried in Melbourne General Cemetery, Carlton.

The two storey shop building was sold in late 2016 and 384 Rathdowne Street is once again selling fruit and vegetables.

Tucci family
Image: Courtesy of Tucci Family
The Tucci Family in the 1960s


The Samovar Travels On

The Travelling Samovar closed in late 2016 and the former tea house entered the next phase of its history as the café Extension of Time, opened in February 2017. The new café retains a link with the Travelling Samovar and has a small selection of Samovar teas available.

The two-storey building at 412 Rathdowne Street, North Carlton, which dates back to the 1890s, was a tobacconist shop for sixty years. None of the subsequent business occupants - pastrycook, confectioner, milk bar, picture framer, noodle shop, café or tea house - can rival the tobacconist in terms of longevity. Read more about the tobacconist shop that became a tea house.


Lincoln Square Carlton
Photo: CCHG
Play Area at Lincoln Square Carlton

Fun and Games at Lincoln Square

Lincoln Square, in Swanston Street Carlton, has seen it all. This leafy green space close to the CBD, site of a Bali Memorial and reserved for public use since 1853, has survived attempted road incursions, locked gates, gang warfare, a gruesome murder and a recent take-over by skateboarders.

Find out more about the history of this significant public space.


Intercolonial Handball Match
Image: State Library of Victoria
Intercolonial Handball Match
Sydney 1875


Former Loughrea Hotel
Image: CCHG
Former Loughrea Hotel
75 Elgin Street Carlton


Former Handball Court
Image: CCHG
Side Wall of Former Handball Court
22 to 24 Macarthur Place Carlton


Notes and References:
1 Evening News, 3 December 1973, p. 2
2 The Age, 24 May 1869, p. 3
3 The Argus, 16 January 1874, p. 5
4 The Advocate, 17 January 1874, p. 9
5 The Argus, 20 January 1874, p. 4
6 The Argus, 23 January 1874, p. 5
7 The Age, 28 January, p. 3
8 The Tasmanian, 7 February 1874, p. 11
9 The Advocate, 18 December 1874, p. 15
10 The Argus, 1 March 1875, p. 5
11 The Age, 3 June 1882, p. 6
12 The Age, 24 October 1905, p. 10
13 Index to Defunct Hotel Licences (VPRS 8159)
14 Land title records
15 Building Application Index (Melbourne City Council)

For Money or Honour

In November 1873, Victoria issued a sporting challenge to New South Wales to play Australia's first intercolonial handball match. New South Wales accepted the challenge "for either money or honour" but, in the spirit of sportsmanship, they agreed to play for honour only. The New South Wales contingent favoured their home town of Sydney for the inaugral match during the Christmas holiday period. However, Victoria won the first round by declaring that Melbourne would be a popular sporting destination at that time, owing to the visit of the All England Eleven, and the New Year's racing. 1

With the city decided, a suitable playing venue had to be found. There was a handball court in King Street, Melbourne, but Carlton, just out of the city, offered an alternative venue. The Carlton handball court, at the rear of the Loughrea (Lough Rea) Hotel in Elgin Street and backing onto Macarthur Place, was built by publicans Peter Taylor and John Curtain. The court was opened officially in May 1869 and was well patronised for both handball and racquet games. As publican of the Loughrea Hotel, Mr Taylor was able to provide a ready supply of drinks to slake the thirst of players and spectators alike. He was also credited with fostering the sport of handball, introduced into Australia by Irish immigrants in the nineteenth century. 2

The first day of play took place on Thursday 15 January 1874 and was attended by a crowd of 250 enthusiastic spectators. Hot weather conditions were trying for both players and spectators, and The Argus commented: "The game is essentially a manly one, and no one with flaccid muscles or short wind can by any possibility ever hope to shine at it." Over the next three hours, the crowd was treated to a series of nine double-handed games, contested by brothers John and James Doyle for Victoria and Messrs. Dillon and Thompson for New South Wales. New South Wales was declared the winner in five out of the nine games, but it was noted that the Victorian players scored 141 points, to the New South Wales players' 137. On the second day of play, Mr Dillon, representing New South Wales, took on Victoria's James Doyle in a series of single-handed matches. Dillon triumphed and things were looking grim for Victoria. 3,4

The final day of play dawned on Monday 19 January 1874 and the Victorian team had one last chance to show their prowess in a series of three-handed games. Prior to the main event, the crowd was kept entertained by a scratch match featuring John Curtain, M.L.A, who "showed that he was no mean player." The atmosphere was electric as the players entered the court - the Doyle brothers and Mr McNamara for Victoria and Messrs. Thomson, Dillon and Gaffney for New South Wales. McNamara proved to be an asset for Victoria, while Gaffney was considered the weak point for New South Wales. Victoria succeeded in winning five games outright and was declared the winner. In the end, New South Wales won the overall competition, but Victoria won the day. 5

Intercolonial rivalry aside, the post-competition mood was good natured and the New South Wales players were treated to a dinner, courtesy of the Hon. Michael O'Grady, at the Manchester Unity Hall in Swanston Street. By special arrangement with John Curtain, M.L.A, and the Minister of Railways, the players were granted free rail travel on government lines within Victoria. On the day of their departure for Sydney via the steamer Wentworth, 27 January 1874, the players had a champagne luncheon and were driven to Sandridge (Port Melbourne) in a drag and pair of greys. The farewell party included John Curtain, members of the Victorian Intercolonial Committee and several of Victoria's leading handball players, all of whom wished the visitors bon voyage and looked forward to meeting them again next year. 6,7,8

In December 1874, while plans were being finalised for the return intercolonial handball match in Sydney, a telegram from Port Darwin announced the death of Peter Taylor. When the news was later relayed to the Carlton handball court, the matches scheduled for that day were cancelled and the court was closed as a mark of respect for the man who had done so much to establish handball as a permanent fixture on Melbourne's sporting calendar. In February 1875, the Victorian team won easily against New South Wales over three days of competition. No doubt Peter Taylor would have been proud of their achievement. 9,10

The intercolonial handball match became a regular sporting event, alternating between Melbourne and Sydney, through to the 1890s. As the sport's popularity increased, handball clubs cropped up in Melbourne suburbs and country towns. Carlton established its own handball club in June 1882, under the patronage of John Curtain. Curtain, co-founder of the Carlton handball court, died in 1905. 11,12

The Loughrea Hotel at 75 Elgin Street was delicensed in 1919 and this also marked the end of the Carlton handball court. The owner, Victoria Brewery Pty Ltd, had no further business interest in a hotel without a liquor licence and it was sold in 1920. The handball court was converted into a brick factory facing Macarthur Place, then subdivided from the old hotel site in 1950. In 1970, the factory building at 22 to 24 Macarthur Place was bought by architect John Mockridge and was granted a new lease of life. The brick factory was gutted, an extra storey was added and a new residence was built within the shell of the old building. The original brickwork has been uncovered in recent years and evidence of its earlier function can be seen from the Macarthur Street frontage and side laneway. 13,14,15

For more information on sport and recreation in Carlton, read our newsletter on sport and recreation in Carlton.

More information on John Curtain.


Letters from the Great War

There are two poignant letters in the military record of Sergeant John Justin Leichardt Katterns. Correspondence is common in soldiers' files but it almost always comes from, or is addressed to, the military authorities. The Katterns' letters are unusual because one was written by the soldier to his mother while he was serving in Egypt in 1915, the other by his mother to a friend in Carlton.

More information on Sergeant Katterns


S.T. Nunquam
Image source: CCHG
Former Confectionery Factory of S.T. Nunquam
413-415 Nicholson Street North Carlton


Notes and References:
1 Australian Architectural Index
2 Building occupancy information sourced from Sands & McDougall directory listings and Melbourne City Council rate books
3 Melbourne City Council building application plans and files, BA 2890, 1920 (VPRS 11200 and VPRS 11201)
4 Building ownership information sourced from land title records
5 Carlton, North Carlton & Princes Hill Conservation Study, 1984
6 Biographical information sourced from birth, death and marriage records
7 City of Yarra, Planning application no. 991221, 1999

The Smell of Peppermint in the Morning

For many decades, residents of North Carlton woke to the smell of peppermint emanating from a confectionery factory in Nicholson Street. The two-storey, red brick building on the corner of Newry Street was built by T.E. Mathews for Stanislav Techitch Nunquam, manufacturing confectioner, 100 years ago in 1916.1

Nunquam's factory was not the first manufacturing facility to operate at the corner site. Russell & Sons, manufacturing confectioners, were there from 1909, and Johnston Brothers, furniture manufacturers, prior to that date. The earlier building was described as "brick factory and stabling" in council rate books. There were two cottages (nos. 417 and 419) on the northern boundary and these were later separately acquired for expansion of the business. In August 1920, a building application was lodged for a multitubular boiler and chimney stack, designed by C.S. Mears, a furnace builder of Tilson Street, Ascot Vale. The work was completed within two months, in the backyard of the cottage at 417 Nicholson Street.2,3

In 1955, when Stanislav Nunquam was 73 years old, ownership of the factory building and adjacent cottage (no. 417) was transferred from S.T. Nunquam Pty Ltd to Nunquam Pty Ltd. The change of business name can be seen in later photographs, with the lettering "S.T." painted out on the Nicholson Street façade. Stanislav died in 1966, aged 84 years, and his remains were cremated at Springvale Cemetery on 25 November 1966. His widow Nellie survived him by four years and died in Queensland in 1970.4,5,6

The confectionery business that bore Nunquam's name continued for another three decades. The second cottage (no. 419) was acquired by Nunquam Pty Ltd in 1978 and the company owned all the land between Newry Street and the laneway to the north. With the downturn in manufacturing in the 1990s, conversion of inner city factory buildings to residential apartments proved to be a lucrative business. The land was sold in 1999 and a planning application for construction of six warehouse dwellings was lodged with City of Yarra in September 1999. The cottages were demolished in 2000 and replaced with modern structures, but the external appearance of the brick factory building remained largely unchanged. The old copper pots have ceased boiling and the fine dusting of powdered sugar that was often seen on the upstairs window ledge has long since gone. The tall chimney, built in 1920, remains as a visual memory of North Carlton's industrial history.

More information on Stanislav Techitch Nunquam, the man whose surname means "never".


Kathleen Syme Library and Community Centre
Photo: CCHG
Kathleen Syme Library and Community Centre
251 Faraday Street Carlton

A Russian Visitor
Aleksandr Leonidovich Yashchenko

It might seem strange to find a story about a travel diary written by a Russian in 1903 on a Carlton local history website. However, it sheds light on a small part of our history. The travel diary of 34 year old Aleksandr Leonidovich Yashchenko records the impressions of a Russian educationist and natural scientist who visited Australia for 3 months in 1903. He landed in Fremantle on the 2nd of July 1903 and sailed for Canada in October of that year. He visited places in Western Australia, South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland and travelled by coach, train and tram, and ferry on the Murray River, as well as on foot.

The main objects of his attention were the provision of education, the native flora and fauna, and the indigenous people with whom he spent some time observing football, spear and boomerang throwing and other aboriginal displays. He met local dignitaries, like Frank Tate, the Director of Education, John Smyth, the Principal of Melbourne Teachers' College, the Russian Consul, Mikhaylovich Ustinov, various Protectors of Aborigines, as well as numbers of people who were born, or had made their home in Australia, as well as local indigenous people and those whose job was to protect them. He was generally very well received.

The whole diary is available in the Special Collections section of the Baillieu Library at Melbourne University and makes interesting reading. This short piece centres on part of Yashchenko's visit to Melbourne, time spent at what appears to be the Faraday Street School (SS 112) in Carlton, the home of the first practising school in 1880 and associated with every branch of teacher training until its closure in December 1972.

More information on Yashchenko's travel diary


The Trades Hall
Part of Our History

At a time when the nation's biggest convenience store chain is being cast as 'rorting wages of its workers' it is worth noting that the history of one of the world's earliest trade union buildings is in Carlton, on the fringe of the central city, originally solely financed and built by the workers to serve as a place for the labour movement. This article centres on the role of the Trades Hall in Carlton and its connection with the fight for regulated working conditions, particularly the Eight Hour Day. It was originally built in timber, after a successful union campaign in 1856, and was largely replaced by a two storey building with an imposing classical façade, bluestone foundations and brick walls with a cement render finish in the 1870s.

More information on Trades Hall and the Eight Hour Day


A Chaplain at War

Often we think of the World War 1 serviceman as young, single and eager for adventure. But many did not fit this stereotype. Read the story of John Lelean Cope, 48 years old, who left behind his wife and adult daughters in "The Manse" in Princes Street, North Carlton when he sailed for Gallipoli late in 1915.


Women and War : Two Case Studies

As we currently commemorate Australia's participation in wars, we need to see what role women played. Women are part of all societies, but when those societies are under stress the roles that women traditionally play can be either reinforced, questioned or even changed, temporarily or forever, and undoubtedly a state of war places a society under stress. So what happens in one town or suburb can be replicated in another. Both of the women cited as case studies in this article had some connection with Carlton and are therefore important to CCHG, but both also made significant contributions to many areas of Victoria.

More information


Queen's Coffee Palace
Digital Image: State Library of Victoria
Artist's Impression of Queen's Coffee Palace
Corner of Rathdowne and Victoria Streets Carlton

Otto Jung's Bible

In August 2015 CCHG received a request for help in tracing the provenance of an 1827 French edition of the New Testament. An inscription on the inner cover suggests that it was acquired by Otto Jung in 1852. Inside the book, where presumably it has been for a century, is a used and opened envelope posted from Lorne and sent to Otto Jung at 1 Rathdown Street, Carlton. This was the address of the very grand Queen's Coffee Palace, begun in 1888 but because of the financial collapse never finished as intended. On the back of the envelope is a message in French, dated 1915. Not all of it is legible but the gist is very clear. Jung is making a gift of the book to "my beloved Paggie ... the only one in the Laver families (except her brother Lol) to have studied French" and recommends that she and her brother should read it from time to time.

German-born Otto Jung arrived in Victoria in 1853 as a young man of 23 - presumably his French New Testament, acquired in the previous year, travelled with him. He settled in Castlemaine where he became a close friend of the Laver family, who were farmers at Chinaman's Creek. When Jonas Laver died in 1880 leaving a family of seven sons, Jung, now a wealthy man, took the younger boys under his wing. William Adolphus, the fourth son, was a talented violinist and when a visiting German musician heard him play as a teenager he offered him training in Europe. In 1883 William and his mother Mary Ann travelled to Frankfurt with her two youngest boys. It is thought that Otto Jung accompanied them. In 1885 or 1886 Mary Ann died, but with Jung's support the three young Lavers stayed on. One son, Rudolph, remained permanently in Germany but in 1893 Jung continued his support for this family by helping the youngest boy, Ralph, establish a successful preserving factory in Collingwood.

William returned in 1889 in order to lobby for appointment to the Chair of Music, about to be set up at the University of Melbourne. He was not successful but became a private piano teacher and in 1895 oversaw the establishment of the Melbourne University Conservatorium of Music, initially located in the Queen's Coffee Palace. Otto Jung paid the rent for the first term. William married in 1894 and four children were born over the next five years. Lol (Laurence Otto) was the oldest and Paggie (Violet Agnes) the only daughter. Jung may already have been living at the Coffee Palace in 1895. Certainly it is his address on the electoral rolls from 1903 onwards. When he wrote his note to Paggie in 1915 she was 19 years old, Lol was 20 and their father's long-time supporter was 85. In the same year William Adolphus Laver achieved his ambition and became the third Ormond Professor of Music at the University of Melbourne. Otto Jung died in 1916. An interesting detail is that death notices in the Age and Argus recorded only his name, age and residence in the "Queen's Buildings". There is no reference to the Laver family to whom he had been so good a friend over so many years, or to anyone else.

More information


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