Carlton Community History Group

ABN 89 670 391 357

The Carlton Community History Group (CCHG) was established by a committed group of people interested in the history of Carlton, an inner suburb of Melbourne, Australia. CCHG was incorporated in 2007 and launched at the Carlton Library in 2008.

We invite you to explore this website, find out more about us, read our newsletter, like us on facebook, share your recollections and participate in our meetings and activities.


Carlton Voices

Carlton Voices

Have you seen our latest publication? Carlton Voices is an edited and illustrated collection of stories which reflect the immense diversity of our local history. It consists of researched articles as well as reports of interviews with people from a wide range of ages and ethnic backgrounds. Each "voice" describes its own Carlton in colourful detail. A Chinese family whose patriarch arrived here in 1855 experienced decades of discrimination which continued into World War 2. A woman who lives next door to the house where she was born almost 95 years ago remembers tearing up newspaper to use in the lavatory in the days when toilet paper was a luxury. The heyday of Italian Carlton is recalled by the children of the charismatic founder of the Australian Festival of Italian song.

Available for $15 (plus postage if applicable) from the Carlton Library in Rathdowne Street, North Carlton, and by mail order from CCHG. Visit the publications page for more information.


Important Meeting Notice

CCHG Meetings are postponed until further notice, due to COVID-19 restrictions and the closure of our regular meeting venue at the Carlton Library.


Carlton 100 Years Ago
Cocaine Blues

As a profession, chemists have a high standing in the community, but they can sometimes slip up on the paperwork. In July 1920, the Health Commission prosecuted two Carlton chemists – Zal Markov of Elgin Street and John William Smith of Lygon Street – in connection with the sale of cocaine, also known as "snow" or "snow dope". At the time, cocaine could be legally sold by chemists. However, the Commission was concerned about the health effects of the cocaine habit and called for tighter restrictions on sale of the drug.

THE COCAINE "DOPE."
HEALTH COMMISSION ACTING.

The Health Commission has decided to conduct further prosecutions against chemists in connection with the sale of cocaine – usually sold under the name of "snow" or "snow-dope" – and certain chemists will be charged at Carlton court tomorrow, and at Northcote on Monday next, with selling cocaine without complying with the provisions of the Health Act or Poisons Act. Dr. E. Robertson, chairman of the Health Commission, stated yesterday that the effects of the cocaine habit upon the community generally were worse than those of opium, and it may become necessary to impose restrictions upon the sale of cocaine by wholesale or manufacturing chemists, who at the present time were not affected by the law. It was imperative that there should be some inspection of chemists' poisons books to see that the law in regard to the sale of poisons and narcotics was being observed.

The Age, 8 July 1920, p. 5

For more information on Zal Markov and his prosecution for selling cocaine, go to the Carlton in the News page.


The Essence of Life


Image: National Archives of Australia

Remedies for sexual dysfunction have been around since biblical times and in 1920 the moral guardians of Melbourne took exception to the wording of an advertisement for Dr Ricord's "Essence of Life". Carlton chemist Meredith Green and two of his colleagues appeared in the District Court in July 1920 to face charges of possessing, for distribution, printed matter containing an advertisement of an obscene or indecent nature. In a shrewd move for the defence, Mr L.M. Cussen submitted as evidence a printed pamphlet on the treatment of syphilis, as proof that certain words were not indecent or obscene when read in a medical or therapeutic context. The writer of this pamphlet was Dr J. O'Brien, a medical practitioner who happened to be presiding on the bench that day. Dr O'Brien felt compelled to retire from the bench, as his involvement in the case could be seen as a conflict of interest.

PAMPHLET IN QUESTION
DISTRIBUTION CHALLENGED
THREE CHEMISTS FINED

Considerable interest was aroused in the District Court today, when charges arising out of the distribution of pamphlets advertising Dr. Ricord's Essence of Life, were heard against three well-known chemists. Mr Cohen, P.M., and a full bench heard the cases. The accused men were Meredith Green, manufacturing chemist, of 100 Madeline street, Carlton, who was charged with having had in his possession on April 15, for distribution, printed matter containing an advertisement, which was of an obscene and indecent nature; Frederick William White, chemist, of 215 Elizabeth street, and Henry Wiltshire, chemist, of Trafalgar road, Camberwell, who were each charged with having distributed, between April 9 and 15, printed matter containing an advertisement of an obscene and indecent nature. Green was fined £3, and White and Wiltshire were each fined 20/.

The pamphlets were alleged to have dealt with certain nervous diseases in terms which were deemed indecent. Inspector T. Maker conducted the prosecutions, and Mr L. B. Cussen appeared for the defence. Evidence was given by Plainclothes Constable M. J. Kiernan, that in company with Plainclothes Constable Stephens, he visited Green's premises on April 15. Green admitted to witness that he distributed pamphlets relating to Dr. Ricord's Essence of Life, but claimed that it was a genuine medicine, and that Dr. Ricord was an eminent French physician, who had made a study of nervous diseases. A visit was also paid to White's shop on April 14, and to Beddome and Co., chemists, Bourke street, where Wiltshire was then acting manager. Both men admitted having distributed the pamphlets. For the defence, Mr Cussen submitted that the advertisement was a bona fide medical pamphlet, and that there was no evidence of publicity, as the pamphlets could only be obtained on application. He expressed surprise that police proceedings were instituted at this stage, as the pamphlets had been distributed for 30 years.

Mr Cussen submitted a document treating of syphilis, written by Dr. J. O'Brien, who was a member of the Bench. He claimed that this was of a similar character to the challenged pamphlet. Dr. O'Brien then announced that in the circumstances he would retire from the Bench, despite the assurance of his colleagues that they failed to see any similarity. The pamphlet was written at the request of the Government for youths of a certain age. In giving the decision of the Bench, Mr Cohen stated that they were satisfied that the advertisement was not a bona fide medical pamphlet. One of the justices was of the opinion that it was simply a medical prescription, but the majority were satisfied that a breach of the law had been committed. Mr Cusson stated that he intended to secure an order to review to test the case. His application for a stay of 14 days in the case of Green was granted.

The Herald, 22 July 1920, p. 9

Dr Ricord's "Essence of Life" had been on the Australian market for decades and was widely advertised in newspapers. The wording of some advertisements was quite explicit and left little doubt as to the therapeutic purpose of the treatment.

MANHOOD, Health, Strength and Vigor Recovered in Four Weeks
By the use of Dr. RICORD'S ESSENCE OF LIFE.

The only Infallible Remedy for Nervous or Sexual Debility. Used for a quarter of a century with unparalleled and unprecedented success throughout the world. Dr. Ricord's Essence of Life restores manhood to the most shattered and debilitated constitutions, from whatever cause arising, in four weeks. Failure impossible if taken according to the printed directions, which are very simple, and require no restraint or hindrance from business. This valuable remedy affords relief and permanently cures all who suffer from wasting and withering of the nervous and muscular tissues, spermatorrhoea, and all urinary deposits, which cause incapacity or degeneracy, total or partial prostration. and every other exhaustive derangement of the system, regenerating all in the important elements, of the human frame and enabling man to fulfil his most sacred obligation.

The Bendigo Independent, 14 May 1904, p. 1


Run, Rabbit, Run


Image: Courtesy of Daniel Mayne
Imperial Hotel, Rathdowne Street Carlton, in the 1880s

Rabbits have been the scourge of the Australian landscape since the advent of European settlement. Thomas Austin is popularly credited with introducing rabbits into Australia in 1859. Austin, who enjoyed a spot of recreational shooting, released European rabbits at his property "Barwon Park" in Winchelsea, near Geelong, in the Colony of Victoria. A few years later, The Age of 26 February 1863 reported, with some understatement, "the rabbits at the park have increased to a nuisance." However, rabbits had arrived in Australia decades before they were released by Austin, most likely with the first fleet or even via the ships of early explorers. The Hobart Town Gazette of 17 June 1826 enthusiastically reported "a gentleman who has obtained a reserve of Betsy Island in the Derwent, is bringing out a large importation of rabbits". The island was chosen because of its absence of natural predators, and Bruny Island was also being considered as another suitable site for rabbit farming. The genie was out of the bottle and it was only a matter of time that rabbits would reach plague proportions.

In August 1883, a Frenchman named Antoine Le Blanc (Leblanc), demonstrated his latest invention that killed rabbits with gas produced by a chemical reaction of carbon bisulphide. Antoine was a dyer by trade and he knew about chemicals. He assured onlookers that the gas was not injurious to their health, but deadly to rabbits.

TRIAL OF A RABBIT DESTROYING MACHINE.
A trial of what appears to be a cheap and efficacious invention for the exterminating of rabbits took place on a piece of ground adjoining the Imperial Hotel, Rathdowne-street, Carlton, yesterday. The process by which it is intended to destroy rabbits is of an exceedingly simple character, and entirely free from danger to human life. A long wooden tunnel was used to represent a rabbits' burrow and in this four rabbits were enclosed. At the end of the tunnel the apparatus, consisting of a meter, in which the gas which suffocates the rabbits is manufactured, was placed, and in a remarkably short time after the pipes which convey the gas into the burrow was turned on the rabbits were lying dead. The whole proceeding did not occupy more than ten minutes, and the rabbits which were enclosed in the burrow succumbed immediately upon the gas reaching them. The chemicals used to make the gas are not of an explosive nature and cannot, it is contended by the inventor, in the least degree injure the health of anybody superintending the operation. One of the greatest advantages of the device is the cheapness of its working, it being estimated that 100 rabbits can be destroyed at the cost of 1s. The inventor is a Frenchman named Antoine Leblanc.

The Age, 17 August 1883, p. 7

Note: The original Imperial Hotel was a single storey building on the corner of Rathdowne, Neill and Kay streets. The hotel was renamed the "Imperial Club Hotel" and rebuilt in 1890.
Antoine Le Blanc lived at 147 Rathdowne Street, which was located between Neill and Reeves streets at the time.

More information on Antoine Le Blanc and his rabbit destroying invention.


Where have all the flowers gone?


Image: CCHG
Median Strip Flower Garden in Canning Street, North Carlton, in April 2020

For the past few years, North Carlton residents have enjoyed a colourful display of flowers surrounding the recently planted oak trees in the Canning Street median strip. Alas, this has come to an end. The flower gardens were planted without Council approval and are now thought to be depriving the young trees of nutrients essential to their healthy growth. The flowering plants were removed by Council staff in late April 2020. The oak trees will undergo an intensive feeding regime during winter and spring, and new street trees have been planted along the North Carlton length of Canning Street.

The Canning Street median strip was originally created in the 1930s, with plantings of palm and poplar trees. Into the 21st century, many of the poplar trees were in poor condition and had to be removed for safety reasons. The replacement oak trees were planted in the spring of 2016 and, in the coming spring of 2020, will hopefully be showing healthy signs of new growth.

Related item: The Poplars of Canning Street


Graffiti with a Conscience


Image: CCHG
Tagging in Richardson Street North Carlton

In recent years, many historic Carlton buildings – both private residences and business premises – have been defaced with unattractive graffiti and tagging. Back in the 1980s, graffiti was not just a medium of self (or selfish) expression. It was also used to communicate social, political and public health messages. B.U.G.A.U.P. (Billboard Utilising Graffitists Against Unhealthy Promotions) was formed in Sydney in late 1979 and soon became active in Carlton and other inner city suburbs of Melbourne. The movement raised the ire of the tobacco, alcohol and advertising industries, resulting in prosecutions.

Two such cases were heard in Carlton Court in 1980. In February Dr Josephine Kavanagh, a radiologist at Royal Melbourne Hospital and anti-smoking campaigner, was placed on a 12-month good behaviour bond and ordered to pay $125 compensation to the Pacific Outdoor Advertising Company for painting slogans on a cigarette advertising billboard. Six months later, in August 1980 two young women – a medical student and speech therapist – appeared in Carlton Court to face charges for wilful damage in defacing a cigarette advertising poster. The hearing attracted a group of about 30 anti-cigarette advertising protesters, who demonstrated outside the court in support of the women. The case was rescheduled to the Melbourne Magistrates Court and the women were placed on 12-month good behaviour bonds and ordered to pay $106.90 each in costs.

References:
1 B.U.G.A.U.P.
2 The Canberra Times, 14 February 1980, p. 10
3 The Age, 20 August 1980, p. 6

For more information on cases heard at Carlton Court, read our latest newsletter.


A Heartless Mother

The woman stood in the witness box at the City Court and faced His Worship, Mr Call. It was Valentine's Day, 14 February 1884, but Mr Call's scathing comments carried no terms of endearment: "You're not fit to be spoken of as a creature, let alone a woman." Who was this woman and what had she done to earn this epithet?

More Information

Related Item: Marry in Haste, Repent at Leisure


Calling All Gobles

Are you related to George Frederick Goble? If yes, CCHG would like to hear from you.

George Frederick Goble was born in Essex, England, in the early 1800s. He lived in England, America and Australia, and he spent his final years in the Melbourne suburb of Carlton. George married Emma Anne Faulden (Foalden) at Longford, Tasmania, in 1838 and they had six children, all born in Launceston, Tasmania. The births of four of these children were registered with the names Emily Ann, Geofred, John William and Marantheo Eliza. George Goble died at Wharton Terrace in Drummond Street, Carlton, on 13 April 1888 and he was buried in an unmarked grave in Melbourne General Cemetery. He shares the grave with John Hely, who died in 1887.

As a veteran of the American Civil War, George Goble may be entitled to a grave marker from the American Veterans' Administration. The Melbourne General Cemetery requires the permission of a living descendant for a grave to be altered. Please contact CCHG if you can assist.


Nicholson Street Tram Track Upgrade


Image: CCHG
Tram Track removal in Nicholson Street, North Carlton, January 2020

The Nicholson Street tram route, which services both Carlton and North Carlton, had a major upgrade in January 2020, with the installation of accessible tram stops for the entire length of the street. The final stage of the project involved removing and replacing the tram tracks between Princes Street and Brunswick Road, to join up with the previously upgraded Carlton and Brunswick sections. Nicholson Street residents had to endure noise, dust and inconvenience during the project, but they have been promised an improved tram service, with better and safer access to tram stops.

The Nicholson Street tram route was originally opened as a cable tram service in August 1887. The cable winding house, which still exists, was located on the corner of Nicholson and Gertrude Streets, opposite the Carlton Gardens. The tram sheds, now home to the bus company Transdev, were located in Nicholson street, North Fitzroy, near Park Street. Melbourne's cable tram service was gradually run down from the 1920s and the Nicholson Street route was replaced by buses in October 1940. Electric powered tram services were re-instated in Nicholson street in April 1956 and have continued to serve local residents and businesses for over six decades.

For more information on trams, go to the Travelling in Carlton page.


Enoteca Sileno
Gastronomia Dal 1953

The recent auction of the Enoteca Sileno at the southern end of Amess Street, North Carlton, breaks one more link with the heyday of Italian Carlton in the 1950s and 1960s, but at the same time highlights the way in which so many different aspects of Italian culture have been adapted to, and merged with, the Australian mainstream. Amess Street has always been mostly residential but this double-fronted building at nos. 21-3 is an exception.

As early as 1897 it appears in Sands & McDougall's business directory as Condon's woodyard, conveniently situated with lanes beside and behind it. Within a few years it had become Condon's dairy and remained so for almost fifty years. No cardboard cartons or glass bottles then. Milk was bought as required and carried home, often by children, in a billy. Jack Ward, who as a child in the 1940s lived just round the corner in Fenwick Street, helped out at Condon's after school by rolling the milk cans up the bluestone lane. He was paid in milk. After 1947 the dairy changed its name several times. For a while it was called the Princes Park Dairy, which was where local cows were sent to graze, returning down Amess Street and entering no. 21 through its big front doors. They were milked at the back of the building where the two last rooms have a concrete floor and a slope to facilitate washing down.

By the late 1950s the dairy had closed and the front room was rented by Italian migrant Luigi "Gino" Di Santo who arrived in Australia in 1952. With an extensive background in business and a long family history in wine and food he quickly saw the potential in Australia for Italian products. In 1953 he was the first Italian immigrant to have a stand at the Home Show in the Melbourne Exhibition Building displaying a Borletti portable sewing machine, Venetian glass from Murano and Italian cigars and cigarettes. The importing business quickly diversified into baby food, mineral water, preserved vegetables, olive oil, balsamic vinegar, wines and liqueurs, featuring goods in demand with the booming Italian population and previously unknown to Australians but soon to become popular.

As the business grew, Gino rented more and more of the space. It became a large-scale operation. His daughter Rosemary remembers that:

"We used to unload shipping containers, with our imports, which were diagonally parked on the road occupying more than half of the street with rollers sending down cartons into the building. These cartons were unloaded using conveyor rollers and ferried throughout the building on trolleys racing up and down the corridors into the appropriate storage spot. The containers were hand unloaded there for about 20 years. Before containers many shipments were brought to Australia in wooden crates."

21 Amess Street served other purposes as well. At one point newly-arrived Italian men were renting sleeping space at the back of the building and the dairy cool store was converted into a shower room. There was also a jam factory at the back of the building run by a Mrs Hoult. No. 23 was gradually incorporated into the main space, housing offices and providing additional storage. The facade had been renovated by the then owners, who also owned number no. 19, and who probably also added the concrete slab outside the front door; Ferdinando Busatta was a concreter by trade. The bluestone foundations of the original cast-iron fence can still be seen beneath the slab.

By the early 1980s the business was gradually changing its focus to more traditional artisan products and in 1982 Gino was able, as he had always wanted, to open a retail store, an enoteca or wine bar. His is thought to have been the first place in Australia to specialise in Italian wines and the first business to use the word enoteca in its name. Customers came from far and wide and many still remember the cluttered treasure house of goods it offered.

Gino had owned the building since 1986 but by 2004 Enoteca Sileno was ready for another major change, moving to a two storey corner building in Lygon Street, previously the Rising Sun Hotel, where today, under the proud banner Gastronomia dal 1953, it conducts wholesale and retail businesses with a wide range of Italian products as well as a cooking school. No. 21-23 Amess Street reverted to its original function as storage space until it was sold in October 2019. Many will be pleased that this historic building appears to have dodged the developer's bulldozer. The new owner intends to live there.

Information for this story has been sourced from the Enoteca Sileno website, with additional research by CCHG. The assistance of Rosemary Di Santo-Portelli is gratefully acknowledged.


Carlton Crèche
1919-2019



Image: CCHG
Former Carlton Crèche
101-111 Neill Street Carlton

Child care centres are now run along business lines but when the Carlton Crèche opened in October 1919, benevolent concerns for the children of less fortunate parents were the main drivers. The crèche at 101-111 Neill Street was not the first in Carlton. A small crèche operated from a private residence as early as 1900 and, in 1914, larger premises were found at a two-storey house at 558 Lygon Street, Carlton. The new crèche was different in that it was purpose-built and believed to be the first of its kind in Victoria. The two-storey, red brick building has an austere institutional look, reflecting community attitudes at the time when respectable mothers stayed at home and looked after their children.

Carlton Crèche was officially opened by the Lady Mayoress, Mrs. Cabena, on 28 October 1919.

More information


An Echo From the Past


Digitised Image: CCHG

This postcard-sized advertisement for Echo Publishing Company Limited of North Fitzroy was discovered amongst some notebooks, meticulously handwritten by William Wilson of Drummond Street, Carlton. Mr Wilson was a student at the Education Department Training College in Grattan Street, Carlton, in the early 1900s. The advertisement served a dual purpose in promoting a book by American author Ellen G. White, and the verso could also be used as a blotter – a smart way of advertising in the days of pen and ink. Ellen G. White was one of the founders of the Seventh Day Adventist movement and her book was first published by the Pacific Press Publishing Association in 1903. This places the date of the advertisement between 1903 and October 1905, when the business name of the Echo Publishing Company Limited was changed to the Signs of the Times Publishing Association Limited. 1,2

The Echo Publishing Company Limited began as a small-scale religious publisher and printer on the corner of Rae and Scotchmer Streets, North Fitzroy, in 1886. The business expanded its operations to include commercial work, and moved to larger premises at 14-16 Best Street, North Fitzroy in 1889. The Company, run by the Seventh Day Adventists, reviewed its operations in the early 1900s and made the decision, based on its religious principles, to discontinue commercial work and leave the city. This was an early example of decentralisation and involved building a new state-of-the-art factory and housing for workers and their families in Warburton, then a small village east of Melbourne. The North Fitzroy factory was vacated in February 1907.3,4,5,6,7

William Wilson's notebooks and other documents were kindly donated to CCHG by the Yarra Ranges Regional Museum. The advertising blotter is now in the local history collection of the Fitzroy Library.

Notes and References:
1 Ellen G. White Writings Website
2 Victoria Government Gazette, 4 October 1905, p. 3
3 Business address information has been sourced from Sands & McDougall directories and newspaper advertisements.
4 The Age, 30 April 1889, p. 3
5 The Age, 13 May 1905, p. 15
6 Reporter (Box Hill), 20 April 1906, p. 5
7 Table Talk, 10 January 1907, p. 24



Image:CCHG
"No Parking" Sign in Canning Street, North Carlton


Image:CCHG
Iron Lacework, Cnr. Canning and Macpherson Streets, North Carlton

Keep off the Grass

This sign on the median strip in Canning Street, North Carlton, states quite clearly:

NO PARKING ON LAWN RESERVATION
OFFENDERS PROSECUTED

But are parking officers from Melbourne City Council likely to cross the municipal boundary of Princes Street to issue an infringement notice? The sign, bearing the Melbourne City Council's name and coat of arms, is a relic of times past, when Carlton, North Carlton and Princes Hill were all part of the same municipality. North Carlton and Princes Hill were hived off from Melbourne City Council and joined the newly-created City of Yarra in the 1990s.

There are plenty of other reminders of Melbourne City Council to be found in North Carlton and Princes Hill. The coat of arms appears on the green street bollards and in the iron lacework of many shopfront verandahs. The images of fleece, bull, whale and sailing ship date back to 1843, when wool, tallow and oil were the chief exports of the colony (then part of New South Wales).

Next time you go for a walk along Canning Street, have a look the bollards and compare the coat of arms images with those on the "no parking" sign. The whale and sailing ship images have been relocated to the lower half, while the bull has been moved up to join the fleece on the upper half. The change was made in 1970 in order to have the land-based and water-based images placed, logically, on their respective levels. Why didn't someone think of that back in 1843?1

Reference:
1 Melbourne Coat of Arms


Turning on the Waterworks at Carlton Gardens


Image: Punch, 31 December 1857, p. 6


Image: CCHG
Water Main Renewal Project
Canning Street, North Carlton, February 2020

Notes and References:
1 Melbourne Water website
2 Yan Yean : A history of Melbourne's early water supply, Tony Dingle and Helen Doyle, PROV, 2003
3 The Age, 24 December 1857, p. 4
4 The Argus, 1 January 1858, p. 5
5 The Age, 1 January 1858, p. 4
6 The Age, 5 January 1858, p. 4
7 Plan of Allotments at Carlton, North Melbourne, Parish of Jika Jika, Public Lands Office, 1859
8 The Argus, 26 November 1858, p. 5
9 City West Water website

Water security is a global issue and in Melbourne we are fortunate to have good quality drinking water available on tap. In the early days, the city's water supply was precarious, particularly during the summer months. Rainwater had to be collected, bores were sunk and water was pumped and carted from the Yarra River and other water courses. As the town's population grew, so did the demand for water and the only long term solution was to construct a reservoir to hold water and convey it via a system of pipes to the city. Yan Yean, north east of Melbourne, was chosen as a suitable site, with water drawn from the Plenty River. Construction took place over four years, commencing in December 1853, and it was a major engineering project for its time. The cast iron water pipes from the reservoir were laid through bushland to the outskirts of Melbourne, then followed the course of what later became St Georges Road to join Nicholson Street near Yorke (later Lee) Street and thence to the Carlton Gardens. 1,2

In December 1857, when the suburb of Carlton was just a few years old and North Carlton was yet to be created, the main valve was installed at the Carlton Gardens in readiness for the official opening of the Yan Yean Waterworks. As the hot days of summer arrived, the citizens of Melbourne eagerly awaited their new water supply, as announced by The Age on Christmas Eve:

It is understood that Melbourne is to be treated to something like a miniature deluge on the occasion of the opening of the Yan Yean waterworks, on the 31st of December. Jets d'eau are to be placed at every corner of every principal street ; but the great torrent is to issue in the vicinity of Carlton Gardens, under the auspices of His Excellency The Governor. The Melbourne Total Abstinence Society are to celebrate the event by a grand procession through the city.

In the same edition of the newspaper, The Age made a "glass half empty" comment that the stand pipes, which had previously supplied water to parts of the city, were to be removed "to induce the owners of property to lay the water on to their houses". This, as claimed by the The Age, had led to water carriers doubling their price from three to six shillings a load, and the burden of cost would fall on tenants. The Age concluded: "As it is, the completion of the Yan Yean water works instead of being a boon will prove a very great source of annoyance to most of the inhabitants of Melbourne." 3

The last day of 1857 dawned and by noon an estimated crowd of 7,000 had gathered at the Carlton Gardens. The Governor of Victoria, Henry Barkly, was unable to attend due to disposition, and the honour of opening the main valve went to Major-General Macarthur, the Commander-in-Chief of Her Majesty's Forces in Australia. Other dignitaries included Dr. Greeves, President of the Water and Sewerage Commission, Bishop James Palmer, Premier William Haines, Mayor Thomas Smith, Justice Redmond Barry and engineer Matthew Bullock Jackson, who superintended the whole scheme. 4

The Argus reported the occasion in matter-of-fact detail, while The Age, one again, took a "glass half empty" approach. The reporter complained about the lack of accommodation for the press, and the poor organisation of the event and crowd control of the procession that followed through the city:

Immediately on the arrival of the head of the procession at the crossing of Elizabeth street and Flinders street, a desperate attempt was made to get the congregating masses into some kind of order. Sweltering policemen pushed and shoved about until they became almost apoplectic, and the choleric Dr Greeves fought desperately for room to work the lever with which he set the jet d'eau in play. The worthy Doctor kicked and spluttered, and snapped, and at last, with the aid of a herculean policeman, encouraged by the bland smile of his Worship the Mayor, elbow room was procured, and the jet d'eau was squirted into a carriage filled with ladies, who in their innocent confidence had driven up to get a sight of the first jet d'eau to be set in motion in the capital city of the Southern Hemisphere. In a moment they were drenched from head to foot. Their coachman was so nearly drowned that he was some minutes before he could move out of the range of the first jet of the Yan Yean. 5

A few days later, The Age acknowledged one positive outcome of the improved water pressure and reported that: "The Superintendent of the Melbourne Fire Brigade informs us that the nozzles of the delivery pipes have already been enlarged, so as to meet the great pressure of the Yan Yean waters." 6

A little-known consequence of the waterworks project was that the land bounded by Station, Nicholson, Elgin and Reilly (Princes) streets in Carlton was reserved from sale for use as a tramway terminus. Matthew Bullock Jackson proposed that the wooden tramway, built to aid pipe-laying from Yan Yean to the Carlton Gardens, could be converted into a locomotive railway line for carrying goods and passengers. This would open up Yan Yean and locations along the way to settlement and sightseeing traffic. It was a bold idea and no doubt Jackson had the engineering skill and ability to make it happen, but funding was lacking and the project never went ahead. The land was released for sale in 1863 and, as a result, the buildings on the east side of Station Street between Elgin and Reilly (Princes) streets were of later construction than those on the west side. 7,8

Fast forward to mid-2019 and the time has come to renew the water main servicing both Carlton and North Carlton. The existing water main running beneath Nicholson Street is 140 years old – not quite as old as the Yan Yean pipes – and is nearing the end of its operational life. The new – and larger diameter – water main is to be installed beneath Canning Street, from Faraday Street through to Park Street, and will involve tunnelling under the major intersections at Elgin and Princes streets. Apart from renewing the pipes, the water main has to be re-located as the new tram superstops in Nicholson Street will make it difficult to access the existing pipes for essential maintenance. Life was much simpler in the 1850s, when public utilities did not have to compete with each other for space. However, we do enjoy the health and benefits of modern living and clean water. 9


Gas Lighting in Carlton


Image: CCHG
Corner of Amess and Richardson Streets, North Carlton


Note: MMBW detail plans are available online at the State Library of Victoria's website.

In the days before the advent of electricity, the streets of Carlton were illuminated with gas lighting. There were gas lamps on many street corners and several examples still remain, as truncated lamp post bases. The Melbourne and Metropolitan Board of Works (MMBW) detail plans, drawn up in the late 19th and early 20th century, include codes showing the location of gas lamps (G.L.) and electric light posts (E.L.P.). The two methods of illumination co-existed for a time, but electric lighting eventually took over and the gas lamps were decommissioned. The upper portions of the lamp posts were removed, leaving the decorative bases.

There are gas lamp bases at the following locations:

  • Corner of Amess and Pigdon Streets, North Carlton ;
  • Corner of Amess and Richardson Streets, North Carlton ;
  • Corner of Canning and Fenwick Streets, North Carlton ;
  • Corner of Canning and O'Grady Streets, North Carlton ;
  • Corner of Nicholson and Pigdon Streets, North Carlton (Removed in October 2019) ;
  • Corner of Lygon Street and Argyle Place, Carlton ;
  • Corner of Rathdowne and Barkly Streets, Carlton ;
  • Corner of Swanston and Pelham Streets, Carlton.


Image: CCHG
Corner of Nicholson and Pigdon Streets, North Carlton
The lamp post was made by "D. Niven and Co., Iron Founders, Collingwood".
The base was removed from the street corner in October 2019.


Little but Fierce


Photo: CCHG
Shakespeare Street Mural
North Carlton

Have you see the new mural facing the mini park in Shakespeare Street, North Carlton? The text "Little but Fierce" is taken from William Shakespeare's play A Midsummer Night's Dream and was suggested by a local resident. The full wording is: "And though she be but little, she is fierce". That Shakespeare Street is "little" there is no doubt. The street is narrow and runs for one block only, between Drummond and Lygon Streets. For the "fierce" side of Shakespeare Street, we need to look back in history.

Shakespeare Street was the scene of at least two shooting incidents, one fatal, in 1922 and 1944. The street was identified as a "slum pocket" by the Housing Investigation and Slum Abolition Board in 1936-37. The people of Shakespeare Street had a battle on their hands in the 1950s and 1960s, when the Housing Commission of Victoria condemned five cottages on the south side (nos. 7 to 15 inclusive) as unfit for human habitation. The cottages were demolished in January 1970, leaving a vacant space ready for development. Without doubt, the fiercest battle fought in Shakespeare Street was in the 1970s, against the inappropriate building of a block of cluster flats on the south side of the street. Residents and other concerned citizens took action, at their own expense, by cleaning up the vacant site and creating a mini park for the benefit and enjoyment of the community. They bravely put their money where their mouth was, so to speak, and entered into an agreement with the City of Melbourne to buy the land. Decades later, the mini park and its new mural remain a tribute to the power of community action.

More information on Shakespeare Street
Related items:
Shooting in Shakespeare Street
The Penny Dreadful


The Munster Arms

Princes Street is the dividing line between Carlton and North Carlton, and a major thoroughfare for east-west traffic. When the lights turn red at the Canning Street intersection, few travellers could fail to notice the distinctive Edwardian building on the south west corner. The Dan O'Connell Hotel is a Carlton institution and perhaps best known for its St Patrick's Day celebrations. The present hotel building is over 100 years old and was designed by Smith & Ogg and built by C.F. Pittard in 1912. It was named after Irish political leader Daniel O'Connell (1775-1847), but the Irish connection goes back even further, to a earlier hotel on the same site.1

The Munster Arms Hotel, named after the province of Munster in the south of Ireland, was first licensed to Margaret McCrohan in 1875. Her application of 8 June was initially opposed, and the close proximity of two other hotels - the Pioneer hotel and United States Hotel - may have been a contributory factor. The application was postponed for 14 days and the licence was granted on 22 June 1875. The original building was described as a small brick hotel, with nine rooms, a bar and a cellar. Mrs McCrohan and her husband Eugene ran the hotel until 1881, when the licence was transferred to George Henry (Harry) Wallace.2,3,4

Wallace held the licence for about a year only, and ran into trouble when removing an unruly patron from his hotel in October 1881. He took legal action against Daniel Dorian (Dorien) for assault, but this case was dismissed by the City Bench. A few months later on 27 February 1882, Dorian, a bricklayer, sought the sum of £300, as damages for an assault and battery, and malicious prosecution. The civil case was heard in the Supreme Court before a judge and jury. The presentation of evidence from both parties took the greater part of the day and the judge commented that the case could have been dealt with in a lower court. After a short deliberation by the jury, Dorian, the plaintiff, was awarded £5, considerably less then the desired amount.5

By the end of the month, George Henry Wallace had transferred his licence to Annie McCanny. Mrs McCanny, former licensee of the Kensington Hotel, did not have the capital to finance her new hotel business and she entered into an arrangement, to the value of £396, with the Melbourne Brewing and Malting Company Limited. Such financial arrangements were common in the nineteenth century and enabled persons of limited financial means to go into business. The brewing company acted as a de facto bank and the hotel was "tied" to the company and required to sell its beer. The bill of sale between Annie McCanny and the Melbourne Brewing and Malting Company Limited, dated 30 March 1882, includes a detailed room-by-room inventory of the hotel contents, and this gives a fascinating snapshot of the hotel in the 1880s.6

On 24 September 1882, Annie McCanny, her niece Mary Ann Cunningham and her friend Elizabeth Vernor had a frightening experience, when four drunken men forced their way into the hotel after closing time. The men went on a rampage, chasing young Mary Ann, throwing a decanter at Elizabeth, breaking a window, smashing glasses and damaging fittings. When Thomas Henderson (alias Pangburn), James Gawthorn, Thomas Whelan and John Robinson appeared in the City Court to answer the charges, they pleaded drunkenness as an excuse, and offered to make good the damage. The magistrate, Mr Panton, took a hard line and denied drunkenness as an excuse for ruffian behaviour, and he fined the men accordingly.7

Annie McCanny died intestate on 17 June 1883, aged 33 years, and she left two young sons, James and Henry. Their father, Thomas McCanny, could not be located and there was an outstanding protection order against him for domestic violence. (Ironically, the protection order enabled Annie to obtain the hotel licence because, at the time, there were restrictions on granting licences to married women.) The Melbourne Brewing and Malting Company Limited took possession of the hotel, as was their right, and the "two intelligent looking" boys appeared in the City Court charged with being neglected children. The magistrate, Mr Panton, was sympathetic to their plight, but Annie's estate, valued at £405, 8 shillings and 6 pence, was tied to the Melbourne Brewing and Malting Company Limited and there was no financial provision for her children. The boys were sent to St Augustine's orphanage in Geelong, and the Victoria Police Gazette later reported that the younger brother, Henry, had absconded in 1891.8,9,10

It could be said that the Munster Arms Hotel died with Annie McCanny. Once the administrative arrangements of Annie's estate were sorted out, the hotel was taken over in August 1883 by Mary Buggy, who paid £100 for the licence. It was during her time as licensee that the Munster Arms became the Dan O'Connell, with the new name first appearing in the Licensing Register in December 1883. The Dan O'Connell continues to trade in the 21st century and remains the only surviving licensed hotel south of Princes Street, between Nicholson Street and Rathdowne Street. This area of Carlton was once populated with a number of hotels, all of which have been delicensed, though some former hotel buildings still remain. The Dan O'Connell's immediate neighbours, the Pioneer Hotel and the United States Hotel, were delicensed in 1907 and 1925 respectively.11

Notes and References:
1 Building information has been sourced from the Australian Architectural Index and Melbourne City Council Rate Books
2 Hotel licensing information has been sourced from the Licensing Register (VPRS 7601) and Index to Defunct Hotel Licences (VPRS 8159)
3 The United States Hotel was on the corner of Canning and Neill Streets, Carlton. It is now the Princes Hill Gallery.
4 The Pioneer Hotel was on the corner of Station and Neill Streets, Carlton. The building no longer exists.
5 The Argus, 2 March 1882, p. 5
6 Conditional Bill of Sale 60205, Mrs McCanny to the Melbourne Brewing and Malting Company Limited, 30th March 1882 (VPRS 8350)
7 The Argus, 30 September 1882, p. 12
8 Probate File of Annie McCanny, 25-885 (VPRS 28)
9 The Argus, 7 August 1883, p. 10
10 Victoria Police Gazette, 23 September 1891, p. 270
11 The Argus, 15 August 1883, p. 11.

For more stories of Carlton pubs, read our August 2017 newsletter.


A Girl in Trouble

In her recent book For a girl : a true story of secrets, motherhood and hope, writer Mary-Rose MacColl gives an account of the time she spent at a home for unmarried pregnant women in Carlton in the 1970s. Mary-Rose became pregnant at 18 and she travelled interstate, from her home city of Brisbane, to have her baby and give it up for adoption. While community attitudes towards single mothers were changing at the time, there was still a social stigma attached to being "a girl in trouble". In the case of Mary-Rose, she had left home and lied about the married man who had made her pregnant, in order to protect his identity and reputation. She kept her secret for years and it was only after the birth of her second child, a son, that the long-suppressed memories surfaced and she was able to embark on her painful journey of reconciliation and recovery.1

Mary-Rose's home during her pregnancy was the St Joseph's Receiving Home at 101 Grattan Street, conveniently near the Royal Women's Hospital, and run by the Sisters of St Joseph. The Receiving Home was first established in Barkly Street, Carlton, in 1902 by Margaret Goldspink, a well known charity and welfare worker. Within a few years, the home moved to the larger premises in Grattan Street, an opulent two-storey house designed by W.S. Law and built for Louisa Langley in 1890. Mrs Langley, who also owned the adjacent aerated waters factory, was declared insolvent in 1905, forcing the sale of the house and factory site to pay her creditors. The Catholic Church purchased the property, measuring 56 feet by 132 feet, for £2,000 in late 1905 and Archbishop Carr invited the Sisters of St Joseph to take over management of the Receiving Home in 1906. During World War 1 the building was extended, at a cost of £4,000 (twice the original purchase price), with a new wing and chapel that was officially opened by Coadjuter-Archbishop Daniel Mannix in February 1915. The land on the eastern side, towards Lygon Street, was later acquired and the houses of Grattan Terrace (nos. 81 to 99) were demolished in 1960 to make way for a new accommodation wing. 2,3,4,5,6,7,8

For nearly 80 years, St Joseph's Receiving Home offered shelter to thousands of pregnant women and also provided short term residential care to children considered by the courts to be neglected or "at risk". The supporting mother's benefit was introduced by the Whitlam Government in 1973, when it was acknowledged that single mothers needed support, not condemnation, to keep their babies. Rates of adoption, which was once seen as a convenient solution to a social problem, have dropped off dramatically since the 1970s, while the birth rate of ex-nuptual babies has risen steadily during the same period. These babies are now more likely to be born and raised in the community than in institutions. The Receiving Home closed in 1985, when it was merged with St Joseph's Babies Home to form the new St Joseph's Babies' & Family Service in Glenroy. The 1960s accommodation wing was demolished in the 1990s and redeveloped as a retail and residential complex. The Royal Women's Hospital, where many of the Receiving Home residents had their babies, relocated to new premises in Flemington Road, Parkville, in 2008. 9,10,11,12


Architect's drawing of St Joseph's Receiving Home
Image Source: The Advocate, 27 February 1915, p. 27
Architect A.A. Fritsch's drawing of St Joseph's Receiving Home extension, officially opened in February 1915.
The original 1890 building facade was replicated in the new wing, and a chapel was added on the western boundary.
The houses of the former Receiving Home are now numbered 103 and 105 Grattan Street, Carlton.

References:
1 The Age Good Weekend, 22 April 2017, p. 22-24
2 Mackillop Family Services
3 Land ownership and occupancy information sourced from land title records and Melbourne City Council rate books
4 Australian Architectural Index
5 The Age, 13 May 1905, p. 12
6 The Advocate, 6 January 1906, p. 16
7 The Advocate, 27 February 1915, p. 27
8 Register of Demolitions, 1945-1975 (VPRS 17292)
9 Find & Connect : History & information about Australian orphanages, children's homes & other institutions
10 Births Australia (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 3301.0)
11 Australian Social Trends (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 4102.0)
12 Building Application Index (VPRS 11202)


Have you seen our latest publications?

Carlton Voices
The Stockade
Walking along Rathdowne Street

Visit the publications page for more information.


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