Carlton In The NewsCarlton has always been newsworthy and here are month-by-month snapshots of what was happening locally.
Christmas is traditionally a time of good will, but this was not the experience of Constable J. Allison, who was attacked by hooligans while attempting to make an arrest in Madeline (Swanston) Street on Christmas Day in 1916. The case was heard two weeks later in Carlton Court in January 1917 and resulted in fines for two of the hooligans, who claimed to have no memory of the incident.
CONSTABLE'S FACE INJURED
CHRISTMAS DAY FIGHT
"As a result of a disturbance in Madeline street, Carlton, on Christmas Day, in the course of which Constable J. Allison had his face so severely injured that he had to go to the Police Hospital, two men appeared before Messrs R. S. Callender and J. Love, J.'s P., at the Carlton Court on January 9. James Seymour, 24, tinsmith, was fined 20/, in default seven days' imprisonment, for offensive behavior ; £15, in default four months' imprisonment, for having thrown a missile; and £10, in default three months, for having resisted arrest. William James Pearson, 20, laborer, was fined £10, in default three months' imprisonment, for having assaulted Constable Allison. Constable Allison stated that on the evening of Christmas Day about 15 or 20 men were creating a disturbance in Madeline street. They had charge of the footpath. Some of them had bottles In their pockets. He ordered them to move away, and they went into Canada lane. Seymour was very offensive, and threw a bottle at witness. On being caught, he resisted, and witness had to throw him twice. While they were struggling, Pearson struck witness on the face, causing a severe injury. Witness's prisoner got away. Seymour and Pearson both said, on oath, that they did not remember anything about the affair."
The Weekly Times, 13 January 1917, p. 39.
The opportunistic young thief who appeared in Carlton Court in January 1918 was not named, so we are unable to ascertain whether he graduated to a life of adult crime. Given his enterprise, it is also within the realm of possibility that he went on to be successful in business or politics.
The Ring and the 'Rook.'
LARCENY ADMITTED BY BOY.
How leniency toward a boy with criminal instincts may encourage him to continue his career of wrong-doing was shown in connection with a case that came before the Carlton Children's Court recently. The boy, 15 years of age, was presented on charges of larceny. The boy, who admitted three previous convictions for housebreaking, was committed to the care of the Neglected Children's department. While Plain-clothes Constable T. Birch was making inquiries at the shop of a Lygon-street pawnbroker concerning a stolen skirt, he observed a boy who was about to pawn a skirt belonging to his mother. The pawnbroker informed the constable that the boy had pawned the stolen skirt a few days before. 'I never did,' exclaimed the boy. 'Well, you come along to the watchhouse,' replied Constable Birch. The boy, clad only in a cotton shirt and knickerbockers, accompanied the policeman to the watchhouse, where Constable Birch found a diamond ring in his pocket. 'Where did you get this?' demanded the constable. 'Well,' said the boy, 'I may as well own up. I got it at the pawnbroker's.' Another visit was paid to the pawnshop, where the attendant identified the ring as the pawnbroker's property. After the boy had been dealt with, Constable Birch remarked to him, 'If you continue on in this way you will find yourself in Pentridge.' 'Oh,' exclaimed the boy, contemptuously, 'I have two years to go before they would put me there.'
Echuca and Moama Advertiser and Farmers' Gazette, 15 January 1918, p. 5
Miss Barwell was at home alone one Saturday afternoon in February 1913 when a dashing young man dropped in unexpectedly. He did not enter the house via the usual means, nor was he suitably attired for visiting a lady. The visitor was none other than Zahn Rinaldo, an Austrian aeronaut, who was attempting an emergency landing from a hot air balloon when he was dashed through the upstairs bedroom window of a house in Faraday Street, Carlton.
Perhaps the person most startled by the accident was Miss R.M. Barwell, who resides with Miss Dolan at "Bronte", 56 Faraday-street, Carlton. Miss Barwell, when interviewed after the accident said: "I was out in the back yard about quarter to 5 o'clock, when I heard a loud shout from the Exhibition oval. I was the only person in the place at the time. I looked up to see the balloon, but could not see it. I went upstairs to look out of one of the front windows. When I got close to the window I saw a man suspended from a trapeze, apparently coming through the window. The next instant there was a loud crash of broken glass. I received such a shock that I did not see what followed. When I recovered I found that the whole of the glass and woodwork of the window had been smashed by the force of the collision." When the lower part of the balloon struck the window, the balloon fell over the roof of Miss Dolan's house (No. 56) and carried away a portion of the top of one of the chimneys, and then fell, partly into Murchison square and into the City Council's store-yard. When the collision took place, Rinaldo released his hold of the trapeze and fell a distance of 18ft on to the footpath.
The Argus, 10 February 1913, p. 13
Related item: Hot Air Ballooning
In the days before there was a Family Court to rule on issues between husband and wife, decisions were made in the Police Court or, as in this case, the Insolvency Court. Clara Armitage (sometimes Bridget) had been bringing legal actions against her husband Cornelius since at least 1901, eleven years after they married. But this ruling looks like the end of the legal road. It sounds as if it was close to the end for him too but, in fact, he lived another thirty years to the age of 80.
"Appeals against maintenance orders were heard on Wednesday in General Sessions jurisdiction by Judge Johnston in the Insolvency Court. In the case of Cornelius Armitage, who appealed against a direction by the Carlton bench that he should pay 10/ per week towards the support, of his wife, Clara Armitage, evidence was given by appellant that he was very poor, that he only worked about one day a week selling crumpets, and that he was disabled through being deaf and almost blind. His Honor reduced the amount of maintenance to be paid on the order, to one farthing per week."
The Age, 23 February, 1917 p. 11
With the summer of 1917 over, moral issues were a prominent topic. Members of the Erskine Presbyterian Church, which then stood on the south west corner of Grattan Street, were concerned with the wellbeing of boys from the country.
"An institute for young men has been opened by the Erskine Presbyterian Church in a delicensed hotel at 118 Barkly street, Carlton. The institute has been created for the purpose of providing a home, under religious influence, for lads coming from the country and is under the leadership of the Rev. L.C.M. Donaldson, minister of the church. There are four distinct divisions, namely, religious, social, educational, and domestic, these departments being under the management of four qualified superintendents. The institute also aims at another great object in the cause of boy life, and that is gathering in those Carlton youths who live chiefly in the streets and whose companions are most undesirable. This work is being carried on by the Young Men's Bible class of the Erskine Church, the members of which are contributing 10/- a week toward the upkeep of the Institute. There are already eight lads in residence, and vacancies for others."
The Weekly Times, 17 March 1917, p. 8
Another church group was active too at St Michael's in Macpherson Street, North Carlton. They warned of the moral dangers of mixed bathing and must have had some influence, because mixed bathing was not introduced at the Carlton Baths until 1930.
The St Michael's, Carlton, branch of the Church of England's men's society discussed "what ought to be a Christian's attitude to mixed bathing. A motion was carried affirming that mixed bathing as it has been carried on in the last few years has helped to lower the morals of the community and this branch is strongly of opinion that stricter supervision of dress and conduct is urgently required."
The Weekly Times, 24 March 1917, p. 8
The Advocate of 2 March 1918 noted the passing of Sister M. Cyril, Sister Superior of St. Joseph's Receiving Home in Grattan Street, Carlton. The Receiving Home for unmarried pregnant women was first established in Barkly Street, Carlton, in 1902 by Margaret Goldspink, a well known charity and welfare worker. Within a few years, it moved to the larger premises in Grattan Street. The Receiving Home closed in 1985.
One of the most beautiful of lives has ended here on earth in the passing to her heavenly reward of Sister M. Cyril, late Sister Superior of St. Joseph's Receiving Home, Carlton … Her work during the eight years she spent as Sister in charge of St. Joseph's Receiving Home, 101 Grattan Street, Carlton, was simply marvellous, and in itself would constitute the toil of a lifetime. No one could have been better fitted for her trying position, no one could have wielded the mighty influence this gentle religious did, upon the varying dispositions of its inmates. The poor girls under her care could testify to the unceasing attention she gave to every detail that concerned not only their spiritual welfare, but their physical comfort … A long personal acquaintance with Sister Cyril, through her sublime deeds of charity, filled me with ever increasing admiration of her magnificent and quietly executed rescue work. The call of anguish from a soul standing on the very brink of despair never reached her ears in vain. At once the trembling, shuddering soul was snatched from the awful abyss that threatened it, the lamp of hope was lit, the wandering feet were safely brought into an abode of peace and faith and love divine.
The Advocate, 2 March 1918, p. 28
In the same month Mr R.H. Solly, for whom Solly Avenue in Princes Hill was later named, protested against the reduction by £50 of government funding to St. Joseph's Receiving Home.
In the Legislative Assembly, in the course of last night's long sitting. Mr R.H. Solly protested against the grant to St. Joseph's Home, at Grattan street. Carlton, being reduced from £300 to £250. He said that if the Government had to conduct the institution it would have to pay a large sum in salaries, but the sisters were purely voluntary workers. Unmarried women who are about to become mothers are treated in this institution prior to maternity, with the object of assuring the good health of mother and baby.
The Herald, 7 March 1918, p. 1
A Girl in Trouble
Fallen Men and Women
In 1915 Dr J.A. Leach, of the Teachers' Training College in Grattan Street, Carlton, came up with an unusual scheme to relieve the suffering of patients in local hospitals and, at the same time, feed the starving people of Belgium. He set a target of 8,000 striped leeches to be collected by school children throughout Victoria. The timing of the collection in autumn was important to ensure an adequate supply of medicinal leeches over the winter months, when the slippery creatures were known to hibernate. The appropriately named Dr Leach offered to receive postal consignments of leeches at his address in Carlton and deliver them to the Melbourne Hospital, where a fee of 10 shillings per 100 would be paid. This money would go towards the Belgian Relief Fund.
The appeal was run again in 1916, but the price had dropped to 5 shillings per 100 leeches.
8,000 LEECHES WANTED BY DR. LEACH.
RELIEVE THE SUFFERING OF SICK VICTORIANS AND ASSIST STARVING BELGIANS.
Dr J.A. Leach, of the Education Department, has initiated a scheme to help the Melbourne Public Hospital, in addition to assist the Children's War Fund, and finally to send food to heroic Belgians. 8,000 leeches are needed by the Hospital, and each school is invited to send as many as possible in small tins, containing damp grass, and posted to Dr. Leach, Teachers College, Carlton. He will deliver to the hospital authorities, and will forward the cash to the schools for the Belgian Relief Fund. He warns children not to go near deep water, nor to run any risk.
DR. LEACH'S PLAN OF CATCHING LEECHES.
Sink loose meshed sack, such as a potato-bag, baited with a scrap or two of raw meat, in a shallow water hole where leeches abound. After some hours the harvest may be gathered in safety. The price is 10s per 100. So that even 100 leeches mean 10s for Belgium. In each town, where there is a hospital, leeches are wanted. In each Australian State there are scores of hospitals, so that immediate action by school children, in senior grades should mean the salvation of hundreds of Belgians. The Black leech is not used. Hirudo quinquestriata fills the bill. Hirudo, &c., is full of beautiful meaning to Dr Leach and party; but the ordinary youngster who has fished for them with his bare legs, knows the breed as "The Striped leech." It is the Five striped leech which is needed at once before the frost causes them to hibernate. The postal address of each school sending must be plainly stated.
Great Southern Star, 23 April 1915, p. 2
Medicinal leeches are still in use today, mainly for plastic and reconstructive surgery, and for some alternative health therapies. They are no longer collected by school children and are specially farmed for the purpose. In December 2013, ABC Radio National reported that 3,000 leeches, well below Dr Leach's 1915 target, were farmed in Echuca in country Victoria.
As this extract from an article entitled "Streets in Slumdom" indicates, long before the pioneering work of Frederick Oswald Barnett in the 1930s and the wholesale destruction wrought by the Housing Commission in the 1960s, there was concern about inner city housing conditions.
"Off Cardigan street, Carlton, there is a cobbled lane, which is a network of blind alleys. The lane contains two rows of cottages facing each other across a 'street' width of 20 feet. The doors of the houses open directly on the lane. Two or three of the ten houses in the alley have yards about 10 feet square. The others are built over the whole allotment with rough wooden outhouses. The only place for the housewife's washing line is the lane itself. On the very lowest assumption thirty or forty people live in this lane, and it is one of the 'desirable residential quarters' of the district. The houses are by no means dilapidated. They are small, hopelessly cramped, confined, but they are stoutly built of brick, and it is only the back portions with their rotting timber additions that are actively objectionable. Imagine what such a lane must be like on a Saturday or Sunday in the heat of summer. That 20 feet of rough cobbled space is the only refuge for men, women and children from the heat of the dolls' houses they live in. The rents of these houses are only a few shillings less than the rent of a brick villa in the great open suburbs of Melbourne.
Off Queensberry street there is a 12-foot lane leading into a whole labyrinth of narrow streets and blind alleys, scarcely one of which is more than 14 feet in width. Little Queensberry street so doubles upon itself that it is front and back to the same houses. It contains a nest of slum dwellings, one or two of which have fallen to pieces, or have been demolished. The ruins are left to rot on the allotments they were built upon. Some of the best of the houses actually possess front gardens, 8 feet is a fair average size, and then of course the tenants have to pay for the luxury by having 8 feet deducted from what would otherwise be a 10-foot back yard. The typical house in such an alley is a wooden structure, of four or five rooms, often not more than 9 feet by 9 feet."
The Age, 28 April, 1917, p 6
The article continues with descriptions of nearby "streets", Queensberry Place, Magenta Place, Ormond Place and Rodney Place.
Funerals were big occasions 100 years ago and the final journey of James Denham, chief inspector of the Melbourne Tramway Board, in May 1917 was accompanied by 900 tram gripman and conductors in uniform. The questions remains: With so many staff attending the funeral, did Melbourne's tramway system grind to a halt?
Memorial to James Denham in Melbourne General Cemetery
"This Memorial was Erected by his Late Fellow Employees of the Tramway Board"
"The funeral of the late Mr. James Denham, chief inspector of the Melbourne Tramway Board, yesterday morning was a striking testimony of the affectionate regard in which he was held, not only by everybody connected with the tramway undertaking, but also by citizens in every walk of life. The cortege, which left his residence, 'Allandale,' Amess-street, North Carlton, at 10.30 a.m., was over a mile long. It was headed by the Tramway Band, playing the Dead March, about 900 gripmen and conductors in uniform, about 70 other employes [sic] in plain clothes, and about 30 members of the police force in uniform. Following the hearse, laden with flowers and containing a polished oak coffin enclosing the remains, was a floral car and a long line of motor cars and other vehicles.
All the members of the Tramway Board were present, and other bodies represented were the Melbourne Benevolent Asylum committee, Heatherton Sanatorium committee, Victoria Bowling Club, Caledonian Society, Victorian Football League, Tramways Mutual Benefit Society, Railway department, Victorian Bowling Association, Victorian Naval and Military Lodge (Masonic), V.R.C. committee, Australian Tramway Employees' Association, Overseas Club and Lodge of Concord. The pallbearers were Messrs. A.E. Laver, J. Ellis, E Hart, J.G. Currie, E.L. Wilson, J.G. Roberts and J.V. O'Connor. After the burial service, Rev. H. Balcke, Presbyterian church, said the large concourse around the grave afforded strong evidence of the esteem and affection in which the deceased was held by all who knew him, especially by the employes, of the Tramway Board, who always had in him an officer who was sympathetic and just in his dealings with them."
The Age, 21 May 1917, p.8
Note: 'Allandale' was at 272 Amess Street, North Carlton.
Elizabeth Livingston (aka Madame Zephy), a fortune teller of Drummond Street, North Carlton, failed to foresee that the woman who came to consult her in May 1917 was, in fact, a police agent gathering evidence for her arrest and conviction.
THE 'FORTUNE TELLERS' SUBTLE CRAFT' AND THE WAR
MENACE TO THE COMMUNITY
"Anxiety in regard to near and dear relations at the war has caused many people to consult fortune tellers, and, according to a statement made by Sub-Inspector Brady at Carlton court yesterday, the menace had become so great that police action was necessary. The remark was made during the hearing of a case in which Elizabeth Livingston was charged on two counts with having unlawfully used certain subtle craft to impose on Madge Conner and Kathleen V. Conner respectively.
Madge Conner, police agent, said that on 18th ult. she and her daughter visited defendant's house at 746 Drummond street, and witness and defendant sat down opposite each other at a table. At defendant's dictation witness wrote her address and the following: - 'I came to Madame Zephy for advice for myself only.' Holding witness's hand, defendant said, 'You are not satisfied with your present surroundings. You are separated from your husband.' After witness handed her a photograph, she said, 'This is a bad-tempered man. I don't think he will ever come back, because I see in your hand a second marriage and mourning. You have a son at the war, but he will return. Your husband is at present with his own people in England. Your son is in France. You are going to Tasmania to relatives. You will meet with an accident. If you go into business you will make a great success of it.'
Witness paid defendant 2/6. She had no husband. He was dead. She had no son. In reply to Mr. J. Barnett, who appeared for the defence, witness said she was not imposed upon. Kathleen V. Conner, daughter of the last witness, said she visited defendant's place on 19th ult., and was told by the latter, among other things, that her father went to the war six months before his son, and they met in France. Witness paid her 2/6. Her father was dead. He was never at the war. She had no brother. To Mr. Barnett: I think I was imposed upon. Defendant, against whom there was a prior conviction under the name of 'Madam Zephy' in 1915, was fined £2 10/, with £2 12/6 costs, on each charge."
The Age, 16 May, 1917, p.9
In May 1918, a man named Dirago fell foul of the law by distributing printed papers without having them cleared by the censor. As an Italian by birth, Egedio Dirago was considered an enemy alien under the War Precautions (Alien Registration) Regulations of 1916. The regulations remained in force after World War 1, until they were replaced by the Aliens Registration Act of 1920. The Act was suspended in 1926 and eventually repealed in 1934. 1
1 National Archives of Australia Fact Sheet 186Thirteen years later, in May 1931, another man by the name of Dirago made an unpleasant discovery, which disputed the popular saying "an apple a day keeps the doctor away."
ITALIAN FINED HEAVILY
FOR OVERLOOKING CENSOR
At the Carlton Court today Egedio Dirago, an Italian, described as a laborer, was fined £20, with £4/4/ costs, in default distress, for having on or about April 26 distributed printed matter connected with the present war without having first submitted it to the censor. On another charge of having dispersed certain papers on April 26 without the printer's name, Dirago was fined £5.
The Herald, 1 May 1931, p. 1
NEEDLE IN APPLE
When eating an apple yesterday, William Dirago of Drummond Street, North Carlton, grated his teeth on steel - and narrowly missed swallowing a needle. The fruit was purchased at the Victoria Market. The needle was disclored [sic] and evidently had been in the apple for some time - possibly thrust in as a "joke."
The Herald, 12 May 1931, p. 1
CONSTABLE AND MOTORIST
UNWILLING JOY RIDER
"When plainclothes Constable I.G. Stock mounted the footboard of a motor car driven by Martin John Shelley in Toorak Road on May 26 he counted on dismounting in a few moments, he told the Prahran Court yesterday. But instead he was carried to Carlton. Stock said he was an unwilling joy-rider. He simply mounted the footboard to obtain Shelley's name. For having refused to give his name and address to the police after an accident on Toorak road, Shelley was fined £7 10s, with 1 shilling costs. The costs represented the money which Stock expended in tram fares on his return from Carlton to Toorak road.
Mr. E. Notley Moore, P.M., said that Shelley's conduct had been impertinent, aggressive and illegal. According to the evidence a collision occurred between the car driven by Shelley and a car driven by Dr. Julian Smith. Stock and Constable A.C. Rice were on duty nearby watching for offenders against the motor laws. Constable Rice told the court that after the collision he said to Shelley,"I am a police constable. I want your name." He produced his badge. Shelley did not answer, but said to R.L. Connard, one of his passengers, "Crank her up." Witness prevented Connard from starting the engine. Connard replied, "You can take the number of the car. I know who you are." Shelley said again, "Crank her up." Witness again prevented Connard from starting the engine, and asked Connard his name. Shelley said to Connard, "He cannot put his hands on you." Connard then cranked the car, which almost knocked witness down. Witness jumped aside and pulled Connard with him. The mudguard of the car hit him. The car stopped after travelling a few yards. Witness said to Shelley, "What is your name?" Shelley did not reply, nor did not take any notice (sic). Witness said to Stock "I think this man is drunk." Shelley then drove away, and Stock jumped on to the footboard of the car, which was running from one side of the road to the other. The registered owner of the car was Charles Dopkins, of Drummond St., North Carlton.
Describing his unlooked-for ride, Stock said that Shelley drove up Toorak road at a fast pace, swerving all over the road. Witness directed Shelley to pull up at the St. Kilda Road police station. Shelley made no reply. He drove down Walsh Street, South Yarra, then into Domain Road, up Anderson Street, across the bridge, back to Punt Road, through Richmond, and then through a number of other streets. Finally he stopped the car at his back gate in Rathdown Street, Carlton. It was then 5.53 p.m. Witness had jumped on the car soon after 5.30 p.m. In the course of the drive Shelley said to him, "Get into the car. You will be more comfortable." Witness asked Shelley to give his name.
On arriving at his back gate, Shelley said to two men who were sitting in the back of the car, "I want you as witnesses. This man (pointing to Stock) said I was drunk. I am going to sue him for defamation of character." Shelley, who said he was a motor mechanic, told the court that he was guilty under provocation. The constables had no right to say he was drunk. He gave up his Saturday afternoons to driving sick soldiers about. When the collision occurred he was returning from the Caulfield hospital.
For having obstructed Constable A.C. Rice in the execution of his duty, Richie Lindsay Connard was fined £1. Mr. Moore (to Connard) Had you been drinking? Connard: No. Mr. Moore: I cannot understand your conduct. You ought to be ashamed of yourself. A charge against Shelley of having driven a motor-car at a speed dangerous to the public was dismissed."The Bendigo Independent, 15 June 1917, p 7
Signage uncovered during demolition of Martin Shelley's former garage at 520-522 Rathdowne Street, North Carlton
Martin John Shelley
Martin Shelley was no young tearaway. When this escapade occurred he had been running his cycle-building business in Rathdowne Street for some twelve years. The back gate where his unwilling passenger finished his ride was at no. 430, close to Fenwick Street and today the Feathered Bower. As his business grew, he had moved to that building in 1911 from a smaller shop in the same block.
By 1921 he was to move again, this time to no. 520-522, a custom-built workshop and garage on one of the few remaining double blocks of vacant land in that part of Rathdowne Street. He traded there until 1940 when the building, with only minimal alterations, became Pullars Dry Cleaners. In this form it survived until 2013 when it was demolished to make way for an apartment block. At this time traces of Martin Shelley's garage were still clearly visible in the building.
More information on the development of 520-522 Rathdowne Street.
Today the average number of births to Australian woman is fewer than two and discussions of motherhood focus on helicopter parenting, mum's taxi and the guilt felt by many women juggling the demands of family and job. One hundred years ago, motherhood seems to have been very different. The following two items, published in June 1918, celebrate fertility and stress the importance of very simple social events to women who, on the whole, spent most of their lives in their homes.In the second item, considering that the event took place in Carlton, there is very low representation of non-British families; perhaps language was a problem.
WOMEN BRING SUNSHINE
In an unpretentious way, The Women's Own Sunshine, a group which meets every Thursday afternoon in the Palmerston street Methodist school hall, Carlton, is doing good work, letting light in dark places and spreading good cheer in quarters where sinister influences generally have free play. On Thursday it had a Baby Day; about 100 babies, not one more than 12 months of age, were brought in by their mothers. The prize for the mother who had had the largest number of children was won by a mother with 11. Two hundred and sixty women were present. There were 23 first babies and three soldiers' babies - the father of one of whom had been killed; three babies were baptized. The Rev. G. F. Dyson (superintendent) presided.
The Weekly Times, 8 June 1918, p 8
A gathering of 28 great-grandmothers took place recently in the Methodist school room, Palmerston street, Carlton. The old ladies had as descendants 300 children, 700 grandchildren and 260 great-grandchildren, making a total of 1260 persons. All but four of the great-grandmothers were natives of the British Isles. The oldest lady present was aged 90 years, and the youngest 65. The one with most descendants showed a list of 13 children, 45 grandchildren and 46 great-grandchildren. Three complete sets of four generations were in attendance at the gathering, which was presided over by the Rev. G. F. Dyson.
The Evening Echo (Ballarat), 15 August 1918, p 2
A constant supply of clean, dry socks was essential for troops fighting in the muddy trenches of France, their only defence against the dreaded condition, trench foot. Thousands of Australian schoolchildren and women, working at home or in community groups coordinated by the Australian Comforts Fund, rose to the knitting challenge. Specialised pattern books were available and socks had to meet a strict standard. There was to be no seam which could rub against the soldier's skin and the socks had to be big enough to allow for shrinkage. The women of the North Carlton Presbyterian Church 1 would have been particularly aware of the need as their minister, the Reverend John Lelean Cope, had just returned from a period of service as a chaplain in France. During the course of World War 1 Australians knitted over 1 million pairs of socks as gifts for the troops. It has been estimated that, at 10 hours of work per pair, that would be an extraordinary 10 million hours of work. The Australian population then numbered less than five million.
1 This church, now demolished, was in Nicholson Street near the corner of Princes Street. The manse, in Princes Street, survives and today houses the Carlton Neighbourhood Learning Centre.
TAKEN FROM THE DEEP.
(From June number of the "10th Brigade News")
An Australian soldier has had the experience of wearing a pair of socks, knitted by a member of the North Carlton Presbyterian Knitting Club, after they had been at the bottom of the sea for several weeks. The members of the club have received a letter, dated 5th April, from Miss Mabel R. Bishop, of Weymouth, Dorset, England, in which she states that the vessel conveying the socks to England was torpedoed. All the men on board were saved, but the cargo went to the bottom of the sea. Her uncle, a British sailor, was assisting to salve the vessel, when he came across a pair of socks, with a note pinned to them, stating that they were knitted by the club. She sent them to an Australian soldier in the big Anzac camp at Wareham, England. They were none the worse the worse for their immersion. Miss Bishop has written the history of the socks for members of the club. It is understood that the whole of the cargo which was on the vessel has been salved, so that all the socks on board will have reached the soldiers.Riverine Herald, 25 July 1917, p 4
The Melbourne Trades Hall Council's decision in July 1918 to fly the red flag at the Trades Hall in Carlton proved to be a "red rag to a bull". Australia had been at war for four years and flying the red flag was seen by some as a symbol of anarchy and communism, and an act of contempt for the British Empire and those Australians who were fighting abroad.The mother of a serving soldier expressed her opinion in a letter to The Herald.
RED FLAG AT TRADES HALL.
Not satisfied with flying the red flag on Labour days, the Melbourne Trades Hall Council has decided that it shall fly every day from the flagpole at the Trades Hall. This decision was reached at a meeting of the council last week. A motion that the decision of the council be submitted to the individual unions was defeated. Recently the council agreed that the flag should be flown to mark special occasions in the history of the Labour movement. This, however, did not suit the peace-at-any-price section of the council, the members of which regard the Union Jack with undisguised contempt and a successful effort was made to publicly exhibit the feelings of this section by the constant display of the red flag. In the minds of these men the flying of the red flag proclaims that the Trades Hall has cut itself adrift from the British Empire and has no sympathy with the aims of the Allies in the war. According to an official Labour publication the triennial conference of the Australian Labour party at Perth adopted the red flag as the emblem of the party.
The Argus, 4 July 1918, p. 4Meanwhile, Victorian Government officials considered whether flying the red flag was sufficient grounds for the original crown land grant, dating back to 1875, to be cancelled.
"UNION JACK OR NOTHING"
"A Soldier's Mother" writes:—
Help us to protest against the Red Flag flying at the Trades Hall on any occasion. It is an insult to Australian mothers whose sons are fighting for freedom at the front, while these men who want the red flag to fly are living in comfort. Fly the Union Jack or nothing! Let us go hand in hand with our boys.
The Herald, 5 July 1918, p. 1
SITE OF THE TRADES HALL HELD UNDER CROWN GRANT
ACT NEEDED TO ALTER TITLE
Mr F. G. Clarke. Minister for Lands, stated today that he did not propose to take any action because the Trades Hall Council had decided to fly the red flag on its building, which was erected on a site that was a Crown grant. Expert State officers explained today that as the site of the Trades Hall is a Crown grant vested in trustees, the present occupants can only be disturbed by passing an Act of Parliament. Official records show that the Crown grant held is dated October 11, 1875 … Under the terms of the Crown grant a trustee can only be removed from the register in case of death, residence outside the State, or refusal or inability to act on the trust. When a vacancy occurs for any of these reasons, the Governor-In-Council can appoint a new trustee. It is also provided in the grant that should the trustees permit or suffer the land and premises to be used for any purposes other than those for which the land was granted (Trades Hall and Literary Institute); allow premises to become out of order or repair; alienate, or attempt to alienate, the land, it shall be lawful for the Crown to re-enter upon the site, and hold it as if no grant had been made. In the opinion of expert land officers the flying of a red flag, while it may possibly furnish a Government with a reason for asking Parliament to revoke or vary a grant, is not sufficient to enable a Ministry to cancel the Crown grant.
The Herald, 5 July 1918, p. 8
Individual unions were not given the opportunity to vote on the proposal to fly the red flag and some, like the Lift Attendant' Union, decided to vote with their feet and withdraw their affiliation with Trades Hall. It was rumoured that the Tent and Sailmakers' Union had refused to make the flag, but this was denied by Trades Hall Council President, Mr E.F. Russell.
MATERIAL FOR RED FLAG IS DIFFICULT TO OBTAIN
PRESIDENT EXPLAINS POSITION
Mr E.F. Russell, President of the Trades Hall Council, said today that it was not true that Tent and Sailmakers' Union had refused to make the Red Flag which the Trades Hall Council has decided is to be flown from the flagpole at the Trades Hall. Mr Russell stated that the delay which had occurred In procuring the flag was due to the fact that the special material required was difficult to obtain. The order had been placed, however, and it was expected that the flag would be ready shortly.
The Herald, 11 July 1918, p. 6
There were calls for the Commonwealth Government to intervene and new regulations under the War Precautions Act were introduced in September 1918. The far-reaching regulations prohibited "the exhibition or use, without the permission of the Minister in writing, of any red flag on any building, or on any land used in connection there-with, or on any ship or other vessel, or in any public place, or in connection with any procession or demonstration." The only exemption was the official use of the red flag for signalling or to denote danger.1
1 The Argus, 23 September 1918, p. 6
WOMAN'S STRANGE STORY.
THROWN OUT OF CAR BY DRIVER
A remarkable story of assault was told to the police on Thursday by a married woman named Dorothy Cantlon, who now lies in Melbourne Hospital with injuries to the head. According to the statement she made to the police, Mrs. Cantlon left her home at 528 Drummond-street, Carlton, about 2 p.m. yesterday to draw her pension at the orderly rooms. Near the Woolpack Hotel she met Mr. Shaw, a butcher, talking to a man seated in a motor car. Mr. Shaw, it is said, told his friend to drive Mrs. Cantlon wherever she wanted to go. The man drove her to several places, and finally they went to an hotel some distance from the city. On the return journey to Melbourne along Plenty-road, it is alleged, the driver suddenly turned to his companion and said, "Are you Mrs. Joe Cantlon?" And when she replied in the affirmative he added "I'll fix you up, because Joe Cantlon separated me from my wife." With that Mrs. Cantlon asserts that the man threw her out of the car, and she was rendered unconscious on striking the ground.
The next chapter of the story was supplied to the police by a cattle dealer named Edwin Lynch, of South Morang, who was yesterday droving some cattle along Plenty-road to the city. He noticed a man driving a car along the road at a very fast pace, and he called out to the driver to slacken speed. The car, however, struck one of the beasts, and then swerved into three others. Lynch spurred his horse and overtook the car and obtained the number. On inspecting the cattle, he saw a woman lying on the road, bleeding from a wound in the head. Lynch informed the Heidelberg police that he heard the woman, who gave the name of Mrs. Cantlon, say that she was struck on the head when she fell out of the car. The injured woman was admitted to Melbourne Hospital. An early arrest of the driver is probable.Leader (Melbourne), 11 August 1917, p.38
The elephant in the room is, of course, the war, which had now been dragging on for a full three years. Dorothy Cantlon's husband Joe, although at 38 considerably older than most volunteers, had enlisted early and had embarked for the war zone by May 1915. When the incident reported here occurred he had been away for more than two years. A bit of company and a jaunt in a motor car, still something of a novelty in 1917, must have seemed attractive to his wife. Joe Cantlon had joined the Victoria Police at 21 in 1898 and became a detective in 1901. For more than a decade there are regular reports in the press of arrests he made and evidence he gave in court cases. Detective Cantlon was very well-known and his suspension from duty in March 1912 "created no little excitement in police circles". More than a dozen Victorian and interstate newspapers reported on the case; most referred to "a charge of a serious nature" but one was willing to specify that it related to "misconduct relating to a married woman". An inquiry was held immediately and Cantlon admitted the charge. His discharge from the service was recommended and he immediately resigned. Later that year he and a partner, also ex Victoria Police, were advertising their services as a private detective agency. The grievance of Dorothy Cantlon's driving companion may have been related to that work.1,2
1 The Sunday Times (Perth), 24 March 1912, p. 1
2 The Age, 26 June 1912, p. 12
Homelessness has always been an issue in Carlton, but in recent years it has become a more visible presence, with people sleeping rough under shop verandahs or begging in Lygon Street. The reasons for homelessness are many and varied and there is no "one size fits all" solution. However, the basic human need for food and shelter is always present. In August 1954, Herald reporter Desmond Zwar went undercover as a "hobo for a day". One of the places he visited on that day was St Anne's Hall, a Roman Catholic girls' hostel on the corner of Rathdowne and Victoria Streets, Carlton. The Daughters of Charity, who managed the hostel, offered a midday handout of food to people in need.
HOBO FOR A DAY
Already a queue was forming outside the grey hostel. Shabby men on a seat near us, three other dead-beats were drinking wine out of a bottle. Dotted about the gardens, shabby men were watching the door of St. Anne's and the clock across the road. By 11.45 a.m. I was getting hungry again. Archie said. "When we go over to the queue, watch out for plain-clothes coppers. A young bloke like you should be registered with the Employment." On the seat a few yards away one of the wine drinkers suddenly staggered to his feet and lunged at his mate. The punch missed and the mate pulled the man down to the ground, swearing at him. Oblivious of the scuffle, the third man went on drinking. The hands of the clock said 12 noon, so we joined the queue – 22 of us. Old men with beards … young men with thin, haggard faces and blood-shot eyes … a well-dressed fat man, reading a paper. At 12.10 p.m. the queue moved forward. A middle-aged woman in a pink smock handed out parcels. Each man touched his hat as he reached her, muttering thanks. I touched my dripping hat, and clutched the warm newspaper-wrapped parcel. Like the others I quickly shoved it into my pocket and made for the gardens. Inside the paper were two thick slices of bread with a generous helping of stew in the centre. It tasted good. Bright sunshine was warming my back. I looked over to the other seat and the three wine-drinkers had resumed their swilling.
The Herald, 7 August 1954, p. 5
Note: The report includes a photo of people standing in the queue outside St Anne's. Their faces have been crossed out to prevent identification.
Desmond Zwar had food and shelter for a day and a night, then he filed his report and returned to a relatively comfortable life. The memory that stayed with him was the generosity of the people he had met and their willingness to share what little they had.
In September 1917 the Weekly Times reported on the annual meeting of the Victorian Association of Crèches.
"Carlton Crèche states that everything is satisfactory. Mothers benefited, 85; children's attendances, 3730. The committee has purchased a piece of land in Neil street, Carlton, to build a new crèche later on, as the present premises are unsuitable."Weekly Times, 1 September 1917, p. 14
Crèches were relatively new at this time but did exist in some inner-city suburbs. This report highlights the speed and efficiency with which private philanthropy could act in the face of perceived need. In May 1913 The Age had reported on the formation of a "large and influential committee" to work for a proposed new Carlton crèche. "Though they have a number of donations in hand, with the promise of more, they are quite at a standstill, owing to being unable to obtain a suitable building and would be pleased to hear from anyone who may have a building to let or on lease suitable for creche purposes."1
By the following February, a good site had been found at 558 Lygon Street, an eight-roomed house (now demolished) just south of Princes Street. There was plenty of play space and the position on a bus route made the service available to East Brunswick mothers, as well as those living further south. By mid-year the Carlton crèche was open, charging 3 pence a day per child or sixpence for 3 but, as it was estimated to cost 9 or 10 pence a day to feed and care for each child, fundraising activities and requests for donations were constant. The committee had decided on an important innovation. "The existing crèches take only the children of women who go out to work, but the Carlton committee intends to make provision for receiving and caring for the children of women who are obliged to purchase their supplies in the markets and also for the children of women who may be attending any of the hospitals themselves as outpatients, or who may have a sick child to take to hospital." Users of this occasional service were to pay a penny an hour.2
By June 1916, after two years of operation, the committee had cleared all its debts including £900 for the land and building. Now its intention was to raise funds for new accommodation. As reported above, this goal had been reached by September 1917. The foundation stone was laid in June 1919 and the new crèche opened before the end of that year. It is believed to be the first purpose-built creche constructed in Melbourne and was to serve the mothers and babies of Carlton into the 21st century, when the building was converted to apartments.
1 The Age, 27 May, 1913, p. 12
2 The Argus, 1 July 1914, p. 6
Soldier settlements schemes were in their infancy in 1917 but problems were already being encountered. There were many complaints like this one about lengthy bureaucratic processes, unsuitable land being bought and soldiers being offered previously unworked land which would require many years of labour before it produced a financial return.
TO THE EDITOR OF THE AGEThe Age, 24 October, 1917, p.13
Sir,- I earnestly beg you will grant me space to show the serious delay that occurs where returned soldiers are endeavoring to get settled on the land. I gave the only son available to fight for country and Empire. He is returned wounded, and useless for trade for which he was apprenticed. We spent much time in travelling, eventually finding a property at Hurstbridge. Orchard in full profit, the owner of which, through ill-health, desires to sell at a price £200 less than shire valuation. It is now seven weeks since all papers, duly signed, were placed in the hands of the department. Up to now nothing further has been heard. Private buyer wish for it, but from patriotic motives the owner desires to sell to returned soldier: but even patience has its limits. If private firm were selling, it would be settled in a week. If the 3 per cent who apply for improved property out of the few who have returned are to experience such slow methods, what will happen when war ceases and our boys come back in hundreds of thousands, apart from others who no doubt will leave the old home to settle on land? I am afraid the Angel Gabriel will sound the trumpet on the day of judgment before they are fixed up.
- Yours, &c.,
J. W. BUTLER.
301 Nicholson-street, Carlton, 23rd October.
John Butler's comments on his son's situation are restrained but the reality was quite stark. When he enlisted in January 1916, Ernest William Butler was 19 years and 8 months old and had been apprenticed as a cutter to a Bourke Street tailor for five years. He left Australia on RMS Malwa in March 1916 and joined his unit of the 24th battalion in France on 5 August of that year. His active service lasted less than a month. He was wounded on August 24, his injuries including damage to his right arm, and was almost immediately evacuated to hospital in England. In February 1917 he sailed on the Benalla, apparently for a home furlough, but was discharged medically unfit in Melbourne in June 1917.
Ernest Butler's name does not appear in soldier settlement records. Perhaps he was discouraged by the slow processes. A very small enterprise with returned soldiers hand weaving tweed fabric had just started operating in Carlton on the corner of Queensberry and Leicester Streets and it is possible that he found employment there. In any case, despite his father's comment, the electoral roll describes Ernest as a cutter in 1919 when he was still living in Nicholson Street and also throughout the 1920s after he married and had moved to Preston.1
1 Geelong Advertiser, 1 August 1917, p.2
Underage enlistment was common in World War 1. The record appears to be held by an English boy, Sidney Lewis, born in 1903, twelve years old when he enlisted and 13 when he fought at the Battle of the Somme in 1916. The best known Australian boy soldier is Private James Charles Martin who was 14 years and 9 months when he died at Gallipoli.
When Queen Mary was in Melbourne in 1901, on the occasion of the opening of the first Federal Parliament, she visited the Women's Hospital, Carlton, and was photographed with a baby in her arms. The baby is now Private J. A. Wharton, of the Victorian Infantry. His parents live in Richmond. He is a husky fighter, aged 16 years, with 14 months active service to his credit. He enlisted when 14½, giving his age as 18, and came scatheless through the terrible fighting at Bullecourt and in other engagements. Recently he sent a cutting of the photograph mentioned from the Melbourne "Herald" to the Queen, and was immediately invited to Buckingham Palace, where he spent last Sunday, dined with the King and Queen, and the Queen acted as mother to him, personally showing him over the Palace. The incident has revealed Private Wharton's age, and it is improbable that he will be again sent to the front.
Portland Observer and Normanby Advertiser, 29 November 1917, p 2
It makes a great story but does not entirely stand up to scrutiny as indicated in a more detailed account of Private Wharton's escapade, published in the Weekly Times in November 1917. He actually enlisted early in 1917 and sailed from Melbourne on May 11, his 16th birthday. By November his parents had not received word that he had been to the front. In any case he could not have fought at Bullecourt, the battle for which took place some months before. A letter received recently showed that he was still in England at the beginning of September. The background to Private Wharton's enlistment, however, is a reminder of the fervour with which many Australians joined the conflict. Jack's father, now Corporal Joseph John Arthur, enlisted with the Australian Imperial Force early in the war, and Jack, the eldest of eight children, shared with his mother the task of helping to keep the home together. He was employed as a lorry driver, and was earning £2/2/ a week, but was anxious to get to the front.
Mrs Arthur's husband, Corporal Arthur, fought on the Somme, at Pozieres, and elsewhere. He was wounded and returned to Australia, but in November 1917 he re-enlisted, found fit for home service only. Corporal Arthur died in 1952. His boy soldier son outlived him by only 4 years.
"He gave me no rest," says Mrs Arthur, who lives at 12 Shelley street, Richmond. "He pestered me for over twelve months. I told him that he was my sole support, and I could not let him go. At last he worried me so much that I promised that if his father came back he could go. His father did come back, having been wounded in the leg, and sure enough Jack kept me to my promise. As he was only 15, and did not want the authorities to find this out, he enlisted under the name of Wharton, which was my maiden name and I signed his papers."
Weekly Times, 24 November, 1917 p 1
Feelings were running high during the conscription referendum campaign of 1917 and support for the "Yes/No" vote was often seen as divided along religious lines. According to some newspaper accounts, Carlton was under mob rule on the evening of Saturday 15 December 2017, when a disturbance at a meeting of the Victorian Protestant Federation at St Judes church hall in Lygon Street morphed into a "Yes/No" stoush a few blocks away in Faraday Street.
MOB RULE IN CARLTON, FABRICATION OR FACT?
HERALD REPORTS A RIOT.
POLICE SAY THERE WAS NONE.
Last night's Herald, with the signature appended of one of its reporters, relates some riotious proceedings at Carlton on Saturday evening. Our Melbourne correspondent has endeavored to obtain verifying particulars of the incident but the Carlton police say that they know nothing of it, because it never took place. The matter will, no doubt, be further investigated by the police authorities.
The Herald's report reads as follows: - That organised bands are taking advantage of the general unrest to set law and order at defiance, was indicated at St. Jude's Parish Hall, Lygon street, Carlton, on December 15, when a mob entered, interrupted the proceedings, and assaulted those who had attended. The meeting was called by circular, which announced that a meeting would be held in the hall at 8 o'clock, with the object of establishing a branch or branches of the Victorian Protestant Federation in Carlton. The motto of the Federation, "For God, King and Empire" was quoted, and the statement embodied that it would be "an opportunity for all Protestants to link up and show a united front in preserving the rights and liberties enjoyed by them under the British flag." It was noticed that when the National Anthem was sung a large number of people at the back of the hall remained sitting and silent. As soon as the chairman, Mr T. Lewis, opened the proceedings by reading the circular convening the meeting, an uproar arose. "We have no God, no King, no Empire!" they shouted, and continued to interrupt by ribaldry and choruses. The assertion of the chairman that the meeting had no political significance whatever was replied to by three cheers for Dr. Mannix. Hoots, catcalls, and general clamor prevented the chairman from continuing, so he introduced the principal speaker, the Rev. T.S.B. Woodfull. Mr Woodfull fared no better than the chairman. He was howled down and cheers were again given for Dr. Mannix.
"Surely Protestants have some right to meet together," Mr Woodfull said, but only those close by could hear him. "We Protestants do not interrupt the meetings of those of other faiths. Why cannot you go away and leave us in peace?"
As appeals for fair play were useless Mr Woodfull said the police would be asked to remove interrupters, and the police were called. Several men were put out, but still the uproar continued. Eventually the police ejected all those who were hostile, and the business of the meeting went through, though the noise of the roaring, surging mob without made hearing difficult. When those inside left the hall they were pelted with stones and eggs and struck with sticks. Several women who were afraid to leave by the front door were let out at the back into Keppel street. They were immediately assailed by a crowd of angry women and roughly handled. Mr Woodfull fought his way through the crowd and reached a tram. His ability to give, as well as take, hard knocks seemed to keep the cowardly mob back. He was pelted from a distance, however. Eggs and stones were thrown at the Rev. E.S. Watsford, and the Rev. J. Good was chased through the streets and forced to seek shelter in a private house after he had been struck with stones. Here he was besieged until the women in whose house he had taken shelter made her way out with a basket on her arms as if going shopping. In reality she went to ring up the police. When the mounted troopers appeared the besiegers dispersed. One man who had attended the meeting was pursued right round the Melbourne Cemetery by rioters, and only his fleetness saved him. Finally he was rescued by a soldier who, with a lady, was driving past in a jinker. The soldier took him up, and, whipping up the horse, dashed through the crowd amid a shower of missiles.
This did not satisfy the malice of the mob, for on Sunday afternoon several young women who were recognised as having attended the meeting, were assailed and chased through the University grounds, and had to appeal to the police for protection. As the mob followed they shouted, "There go two of the Protestant dogs in Good's mob!"
J.T. Beckett, 159-162 Flinders St.
The Bendigo Independent, 18 December 1917, p. 10.
Despite The Bendigo Independent's claim that the police knew nothing about the alleged riot on the Saturday night, several arrests were reported in Melbourne newspapers the following Monday. Carlton footballer William "Mickey" Dunn was charged with offensive behaviour and fined 20 shillings, while two women from Carlton and Abbotsford were fined twice the amount of £2 each.
"YES" AND "NO" ARGUMENT.
William Leslie Dunn, aged 20 years, a felt hatter, was charged in the Carlton Court on Thursday, before Messrs. D.E. Hayes (chairman) and W. Brunton, J.P.'s with having behaved in an offensive manner on Saturday night last. Sergeant Stallard prosecuted and Mr. W.J. Tucker appeared for the defence. Constable H.G. Hinkley said: -At 10 minutes past 11 o'clock last Saturday night there was a mob of about 200 people on the corner of Faraday and Cardigan streets. Accused was prominent among the mob and he started an argument with a man named Hobden, saying to the latter, 'I'll have you on," at the same time assuming a fighting attitude Dunn also acted in a threaten-ing manner, yelling and calling out, also boo-hooing. He was subsequently arrested.
To Mr Tucker -I am not making a mistake as to Dunn taking part in the disturbance and rushing through the crowd. Constable R. Ballantine said: -Dunn was among the crowd, and he behaved in an offensive manner, and wanted to fight anyone. Hobden was a "Yes" man and Dunn "No," and it was over this question an argument started. Constable T.D. Morgans gave corroborative evidence. Accused, who said he was a prominent Carlton football player, denied the charge.
To Sergeant Stallard. -I was wearing a "No" button but had no argument in connection with the referendum. The police were telling deliberate falsehoods.
A fine of 20/ was imposed, in default seven days imprisonment.
Mr Tucker said that his client wished the Court to know that he (Dunn) had nothing whatever to do with the disgraceful proceedings which occurred at St Jude's Hall earlier in the same evening, and the magistrates said that there was no reason to suppose that he had.
The Argus, 21 December 1917, p. 7
TWO WOMEN FINED.
In the Carlton Court on Friday, before Messrs. R. S. Callender (chairman) and H. J. Love, J.P.'s, Julia Mary Hart, 508 Drummond street, Carlton, and Mary Richardson, 8 Albert street, Abbotsford, were charged with having behaved in an in-sulting manner on December 15. Sergeant C. Stallard prosecuted. Both women pleaded guilty.
Constable R. Ballantine said that at half past 10 o'clock on the evening in question a crowd of about 150 persons had assembled on the comer of Cardigan and Faraday streets. The two women were there, calling out in a loud tone of voice, "Come out, all you Billie Hughes rotters and wasters, and we'll give you the same as we gave old Good." This remark had reference to a disturbance which took place earlier in the evening, when the Rev. J. Good, vicar of St. Jude's Anglican Church, Carlton, was chased and stoned by a mob. A number of persons in the crowd had pieces of roadmetal in their hands. Mounted troopers and other members of the police force arrived and dispersed the crowd.
Constable H.G. Hinkley said that Hart and Richardson were calling out loudly, and boohooing and behaving in an insulting manner. The two women were each fined £2, in default 14 days' imprisonment.
The Argus, 29 December 1917, p. 9.
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